Lesson 13 Expressing the Exact Relationship

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Expressing the Exact
Relationship
Lesson 13
Joseph C. Blumenthal
In this lesson you will study subordination
as a way of building sentences.
Subordinate means “of lower rank.” A clerk, for
example, is subordinate to a manager.
In the army, a sergeant is subordinate to a
(private, general).
In this lesson you will study subordination
as a way of building sentences.
Subordinate means “of lower rank.” A clerk, for
example, is subordinate to a manager.
In the army, a sergeant is subordinate to a
(private, general).
In grammar, a subordinate word group is one
that is less than a complete sentence—one
that does not make sense by itself.
Phrases and clauses are examples of
_________ words groups.
In grammar, a subordinate word group is one
that is less than a complete sentence—one
that does not make sense by itself.
Phrases and clauses are examples of
subordinate words groups.
When we put an idea into a clause rather than
into a sentence, we say that we subordinate
it.
When we subordinate an idea, we express it in a
word group that is (more, less) than a
sentence.
When we put an idea into a clause rather than
into a sentence, we say that we subordinate
it.
When we subordinate an idea, we express it in a
word group that is (more, less) than a
sentence.
a. The rain stopped.
b. when the rain stopped
Which is a subordinate word group because it is
less than a sentence? (a,b)
a. The rain stopped.
b. when the rain stopped
Which is a subordinate word group because it is
less than a sentence? (a,b)
a. The rain stopped.
b. when the rain stopped
We subordinated the idea in sentence a by
adding the clause signal _______.
a. The rain stopped.
b. when the rain stopped
We subordinated the idea in sentence a by
adding the clause signal _when__.
when the rain stopped
Because this type of subordinate word group
answers the question When?—like an ordinary
adverb—it is classified as an _____ clause.
when the rain stopped
Because this type of subordinate word group
answers the question When?—like an ordinary
adverb—it is classified as an adverb clause.
We continued our game when the rain stopped.
The adverb clause when the rain stopped
modifies the verb __________.
We continued our game when the rain stopped.
The adverb clause when the rain stopped
modifies the verb _continued_.
We continued our game when the rain stopped.
Because the clause signal when starts a
subordinate word group and also connects
this word group with the sentence, we call it
a subordinating conjunction.
The subordinating conjunction in the
above sentence is ______.
We continued our game when the rain stopped.
Because the clause signal when starts a
subordinate word group and also connects
this word group with the sentence, we call it
a subordinating conjunction.
The subordinating conjunction in the
above sentence is _when_.
We lost our way because we made a wrong turn.
The subordinating conjunction in the
above sentence is _______.
We lost our way because we made a wrong turn.
The subordinating conjunction in the
above sentence is because.
The grammar term for the clause signals that
start adverb clauses is subordinating
_________.
The grammar term for the clause signals that
start adverb clauses is subordinating
conjunctions.
You have had much practice in using the
conjunctions and, but, and or to make
compound sentences.
These conjunctions, and, but, and, or are
sometimes called coordinating (co- means
equals) conjunctions because they connect
words and word groups that are (unequal,
equal) in rank.
You have had much practice in using the
conjunctions and, but, and or to make
compound sentences.
These conjunctions, and, but, and, or are
sometimes called coordinating (co- means
equals) conjunctions because they connect
words and word groups that are (unequal,
equal) in rank.
Because the two parts of a compound
sentence are equal in rank, they are
connected by a (coordinating, subordinating)
conjunction.
Because the two parts of a compound
sentence are equal in rank, they are
connected by a (coordinating, subordinating)
conjunction.
Conjunctions such as because, when, if, and
unless are called subordinating conjunctions
because they connect a word group of
(higher, lower) rank than a sentence.
Conjunctions such as because, when, if, and
unless are called subordinating conjunctions
because they connect a word group of
(higher, lower) rank than a sentence.
Because adverb clauses are of lower rank than
the sentence to which they are attached,
they are connected by (coordinating,
subordinating) conjunctions.
Because adverb clauses are of lower rank than
the sentence to which they are attached,
they are connected by (coordinating,
subordinating) conjunctions.
A sentence that contains one or more
subordinate clauses is called a complex
sentence.
Any sentence that contains an adverb clause
is a (complex, compound) sentence.
A sentence that contains one or more
subordinate clauses is called a complex
sentence.
Any sentence that contains an adverb clause
is a (complex, compound) sentence.
In every complex sentence that contains an
adverb clause, you can expect to find a
(coordinating, subordinating) conjunction.
In every complex sentence that contains an
adverb clause, you can expect to find a
(coordinating, subordinating) conjunction.
a. when, as, since, where, after, as if,
because, unless, so that, although, etc.
b. and, but, or
Which one of the above groups consists of
subordinating conjunctions? (a, b)
a. when, as, since, where, after, as if,
because, unless, so that, although, etc.
b. and, but, or
Which one of the above groups consists of
subordinating conjunctions? (a, b)
a. A serious fire broke out, and the building
was empty.
b. A serious fire broke out while the building
was empty.
One sentence merely adds one fact to
another. The other sentence explains how
the two facts are related.
Which sentence brings out more clearly the
relationship between the two ideas? (a,b)
a. A serious fire broke out, and the building
was empty.
b. A serious fire broke out while the building
was empty.
One sentence merely adds one fact to
another. The other sentence explains how
the two facts are related.
Which sentence brings out more clearly the
relationship between the two ideas? (a,b)
a. A serious fire broke out, and the building
was empty.
b. A serious fire broke out while the building
was empty.
Which is a complex sentence because it
contains a subordinating conjunction? (a,b)
a. A serious fire broke out, and the building
was empty.
b. A serious fire broke out while the building
was empty.
Which is a complex sentence because it
contains a subordinating conjunction? (a,b)
a. A serious fire broke out, and the building
was empty.
b. A serious fire broke out while the building
was empty.
The relationship between the two facts is
brought out more clearly by the (complex,
compound) sentence?
a. A serious fire broke out, and the building
was empty.
b. A serious fire broke out while the building
was empty.
The relationship between the two facts is
brought out more clearly by the (complex,
compound) sentence?
a. The dog won’t eat, and it seems to be
hungry.
b. The dog won’t eat although it seems to be
hungry.
The relationship between the two facts is
brought out more clearly by the (complex,
compound) sentence?
a. The dog won’t eat, and it seems to be
hungry.
b. The dog won’t eat although it seems to be
hungry.
The relationship between the two facts is
brought out more clearly by the (complex,
compound) sentence?
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS when,
as, since, where, after, as if, because, so
that, although, etc.
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS and, but,
or
The conjunctions that show more specifically
the relationship between the two facts or
ideas that they connect are the
(subordinating, coordinating) conjunctions.
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS when,
as, since, where, after, as if, because, so
that, although, etc.
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS and, but,
or
The conjunctions that show more specifically
the relationship between the two facts or
ideas that they connect are the
(subordinating, coordinating) conjunctions.
We can give a sentence many difference
merely by changing the subordinating
conjunction.
I shall not tell Ruth…I see her.
Which subordinating conjunction does NOT
fit into the above sentence?
when
until
so that
if
unless
although
We can give a sentence many difference
merely by changing the subordinating
conjunction.
I shall not tell Ruth…I see her.
Which subordinating conjunction does NOT
fit into the above sentence?
when
until
so that
if
unless
although
Think of the meaning of each sentence before
you select the clause signal.
The boys greeted each other…nothing had
happened.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
how the boys greeted each other:
unless
as if
although
so that
Think of the meaning of each sentence before
you select the clause signal.
The boys greeted each other…nothing had
happened.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
how the boys greeted each other:
unless
as if
although
so that
Bob studies at night…he completes his work in
the afternoon.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
on what condition Bob studies as night:
until
although
because
unless
Bob studies at night…he completes his work in
the afternoon.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
on what condition Bob studies as night:
until
although
because
unless
Maria applied for the job…she read the
advertisement in the newspaper.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
when Maria applied for the job:
if
as soon as
although
where
Maria applied for the job…she read the
advertisement in the newspaper.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
when Maria applied for the job:
if
as soon as
although
where
Our guide tied the canoe to a tree…it would
not drift away.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
why the guide tied the canoe to a tree:
as if
where
since
so that
Our guide tied the canoe to a tree…it would
not drift away.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
why the guide tied the canoe to a tree:
as if
where
since
so that
Mr. Hart put in a pinch of grass seed…he
pulled out a weed.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
where Mr. Hart put in grass seed:
after
so that
if
wherever
Mr. Hart put in a pinch of grass seed…he
pulled out a weed.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
where Mr. Hart put in grass seed:
after
so that
if
wherever
Fear is good…it leads you to protect
yourself.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
under what condition fear is good:
though
if
although
unless
Fear is good…it leads you to protect
yourself.
Which clause signal would you use to explain
under what condition fear is good:
though
if
although
unless
See how simple it is to combine two
sentences by using an adverb clause.
As
^ The man came closer. I noticed a scar
on his cheek.
We change the first sentence to an adverb
clause by adding the subordinating
conjunction as. Then we change the period
after the first sentence to a _____.
See how simple it is to combine two
sentences by using an adverb clause.
As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on
his cheek.
We change the first sentence to an adverb
clause by adding the subordinating
conjunction as. Then we change the period
after the first sentence to a comma.
The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his
cheek.
As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on
his cheek.
We have combined the two sentences by
making a (compound, complex) sentence.
The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his
cheek.
As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on
his cheek.
We have combined the two sentences by
making a (compound, complex) sentence.
The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his
cheek.
As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on
his cheek.
The relationship between the two facts is
brought out more clearly by the
(compound, complex) sentence.
The man came closer. I noticed a scar on his
cheek.
As the man came closer, I noticed a scar on
his cheek.
The relationship between the two facts is
brought out more clearly by the
(compound, complex) sentence.
Write the following answers on your
own sheet of paper.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
EXAMPLE:
Veal is not my favorite meat. I sometimes eat
it.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
EXAMPLE:
Veal is not my favorite meat. I sometimes eat
it.
Although veal is not my favorite meat, I
sometimes eat it.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
1.Skippy hid under the sofa. He was afraid of
the storm.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
2. You are the oldest. It was your
responsibility.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
3. Mr. Doyle decided to buy our car. We had
already sold it.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
4. Peaches are plentiful. They are very poor.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
5. I opened the cabinet, and a jar fell out.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
6. Jim insisted on changing the tire, and he
had on his best suit.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
7. You wait long enough, and everything comes
back into style again.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
8. I’ll set the alarm, and I’ll be sure to get up
early.
Combine each pair of sentences by changing
the italicized sentence to an adverb
clause.
There could be variations, but they HAVE to
have an adverb clause: when, as, since,
where, after, as if, because, so, although,
if, unless, until.
You MAY NOT use and, but, or, nor.
9. Sally smells roses, and she begins to
sneeze.
You are done!!!
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