Organizations of Domination We must consume to survive. But, our economy is organized so that our country stays afloat by over-consumption. Spending increases GDP. Over Consumption Examples of over-consumption: Unnecessary focus on laziness (idling, drive-throughs, etc). Unnecessary focus on “professionalism.” Unnecessary focus on leisure. Unnecessary focus on status What’s wrong with overconsumption? 1) Disposable mentality 2) Entitlement leads to “us” versus “them.” 3) Pollution Weber’s Concept of Domination 1) Coercive domination 2) Legitimate domination – those in authority are perceived as legitimate and people obey them without force Charismatic Traditional Rational-Legal Michel’s Iron Law of Oligarchy Once in power, those in power (even if elected democratically) try to maintain their power at the expense of the groups over whom they have power. Marx’s Dialectical Materialism Those who own capital exploit the labor power of the working class. Working class, because of species being, will eventually revolt. Exploitation Today The economy today requires that we participate in the exploitation of others: Our culture supports such exploitation Hegemony Language of rationality Exploitation Today Ethnic minorities, historically have been exploited: Native Americans, Chinese, Africans, etc. However, it’s important to note that today, there are more slaves than there has ever been in human history. http://www.iabolish.org/ Exploitation Today All societies have “dirty jobs.” U.S. citizens, however, commonly do not want to do many of those jobs because they pay little, are dangerous and have no benefits. Farm work Sweatshops Cleaning services Undocumented workers are reviled by U.S. workers, yet are needed by them. Why such hatred for a group that benefits us? Exploitation Today U.S. companies (and other MNCs) follow cheap labor force that have little worker protection. Even in U.S., 56,000 workers lives are lost due to industrial accidents and illness. In other countries, the numbers are higher. Exploitation Today U.S. Economic leaders develop trade policy and laws that benefit them at the expense of every day people: Economic markers like GDP De-regulation Govt/Business relationships -- WTO, World Bank and IMF, Short-termism Political policy often helps big business – for example, Afghan food policy that requires food to be sent from the US (which takes months) rather than buying food in the area. Exploitation Today Do people in the U.S. really want all societies to be rich? What would that mean? How do we rationalize our desires?