Ernest Hemingway
(July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961)
Hemingway's 1923
passport photo
taken a year before
the publication of
"Indian Camp“
A Nobel Prize
Laureate 1954,
representative of
the “Lost
The "Lost Generation"
The "Lost Generation" is a term used to
refer to the generation that came of age
during World War I. The term was
popularized by Ernest Hemingway who used
it as one of two contrasting epigraphs for his
novel, The Sun Also Rises. In that volume
Hemingway credits the phrase to Gertrude
Stein (1874 – 1946) who was then his mentor
and patron.
In our Time (1925)
Bildungsroman is a type of novel
concerned with the education,
development, and maturing of a young
"Indian Camp"
"Indian Camp" is a short story written
by Ernest Hemingway. The story was
first published in 1924 in Ford Madox
Ford's literary magazine transatlantic
review in Paris, and republished by Boni
& Liveright in 1925 in the American
edition of Hemingway's first volume of
short stories In Our Time.
the Hemingway Canon--
“a fundamental principle or general rule”
The story is important because it shows the
emergence of Hemingway's understated
style and use of counterpoint. "Indian Camp"
has themes such as childbirth and fear of
death, which permeate much of his
subsequent work. When In Our Time was
published the quality of writing was noted
and praised; scholars consider "Indian
Camp" an important story in the Hemingway
Iceberg Theory
Understated Style
The Iceberg Theory (also known as the
"theory of omission") is a term used to
describe the writing style of American
writer Ernest Hemingway. Hemingway is
best known for works such as The Sun
Also Rises, A Farewell to Arms, and The
Old Man and the Sea.
only one-eighth of it (iceberg)
being above water
If a writer of prose knows enough of what he is writing
about he may omit things that he knows and the reader,
if the writer is writing truly enough, will have a feeling of
those things as strongly as though the writer had stated
them. The dignity of movement of an ice-berg is due to
only one-eighth of it being above water. A writer who
omits things because he does not know them only
makes hollow places in his writing.
—Ernest Hemingway in Death in the Afternoon
get the most from the least
Hemingway biographer Carlos Baker believed that
as a writer of short stories Hemingway learned how
to "get the most from the least, how to prune
language how to multiply intensities, and how to tell
nothing but the truth in a way that allowed for telling
more than the truth".
Furthermore, Baker explains that in the writing style
of the iceberg theory the hard facts float above
water, while the supporting structure, complete with
symbolism, operates out-of-sight.
Criticism of “Indian Camp”
Gwendolyn (a female given name: from a Welsh
word meaning “white.” ) Tetlow believes that
Hemingway's early fiction such as Indian Camp
shows his lack of concern for character development
by simply placing the character in his or her
surroundings. However, in Indian Camp the use of
descriptive detail such as a screaming woman, men
smoking tobacco, and an infected wound build a
sense of veracity (truthfulness).
In other words, a story can communicate by subtext;
Hemingway's use of
Hemingway's use of counterpoint in his
fiction is evident in "Indian Camp", as at
the end Nick trails his hand in the lake
water that "felt warm in the sharp chill of
the morning".
Leitmotif = Guiding Motif
A leitmotif (pronounced /ˌlaɪtmoʊˈtiːf/),
sometimes written leit-motif, is a musical
term (though occasionally used in theatre or
literature), referring to a recurring theme,
associated with a particular person, place, or
idea. It is closely related to the musical idea
of idée fixe. The term itself comes from the
German Leitmotiv, literally meaning "leading
motif", or, perhaps more accurately, "guiding
Genre: Initiation Story
The story is an initiation story, in which Nick is
initiated to the adult world of childbirth and death.
Nick's father introduces his son to sexuality,
childbirth, and unintentionally to violent death—for
Nick the two become inextricably interwoven.
Gwendolyn Tetlow maintains that in "Indian Camp"
sexuality culminates in "butchery-style" birth and
bloody death, and that Nick's anxiety is manifested
when he must turn away from the events in the
Initiation Story
An initiation story is a fiction in which the protagonist
(the most important character in the work) undergoes
an experience that is life-changing, and usually that
character is a young person who gains a measure of
maturity from the experience.
Good examples of initiation in short stories are
James Joyce's "Araby," John Updike's "A & P,"
Sarah Orne Jewett's "A White Heron," and Alice
Munro's "The Found Boat."
In-Class Writing
Plot Summary
Story vs. Plot: Story vs. Plot: That “The
king died and then the queen died” is a
story (in which events are
chronologically organized) whereas that
“The king died and the queen died of
grief” is a plot in which the events are
linked by causality.
E. M. Forster. Aspects of the Novel,
Plot Summary
Convention: use the simple present tense;
Mention full name (of an author) for the first
time and then only use the last name
Condense: the art of selection
Michelangelo is said to have created David, a
masterpiece of Renaissance sculpture, by
taking a block of marble and cutting away
everything that was not David.
No more than five sentences
Use the simple present tense and write a
brief summary of the story by using Six W’s;
Sequence: the chronological order, the
climactic/anti-climactic sequence or model it
on the Inverted Pyramid, a common method
in journalism by which events are organized
from most to least important.
Fix those problems presented by
In-Class Writing on
Pathology vs. Psychiatry
According to Arnold Weinstein, Hemingway
has made a distinction between Pathology
and Psychiatry. The former refers to a
wound or sudden physical injury whereas the
latter adds the emotional shock or
psychological damage. Psychological
traumas are hard to identify from the outside
and deepen with time.
Pro and Con
on Dr. Henry Adams
Claim: He is
insensitive in such a
delicate situation…
Claim: Dr. Adams
remains cool at a
critical moment.
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