Seeking Suffrage How can citizens participate in politics? Voting Volunteering for a campaign Joining an interest group Lobbying the government Writing to government officials Running for office Who is allowed to vote? American citizens 18 years of age and older Including all races And both genders 18+ Right to Vote? Which of the following countries does not constitutionally guarantee its citizens the right to vote? Is it: (A) Iran (B) Libya (C) The United States (D) All of the above. Historically Constitutional Silence on the Right to Vote. Instead the Constitution bans the restriction of voting based on certain factors. Comparatively, South African constitution has an express right to vote . When the US Constitution was written, only white, male, adult property owners were allowed to vote. Property ownership and tax requirements were eliminated over the next 50-60 years. Literacy tests and poll taxes were implemented in many states. Discriminatory practices. (1850’s-1880’s) Took until the 1970’s and 1980’s to eliminate literacy tests and poll taxes throughout the country. Where do we get our voting rights? SCAVENGER HUNT! Using a copy of the Constitution, locate the Amendments that address voting rights in some way. Once you have identified the Amendment: Summarize the content Identify the groups impacted State the year each Amendment was ratified Which Amendment is it? As the description of the Amendment is presented on the slide, raise you hand if you think you know which Amendment is being discussed. AMENDMENT XXVI (26) Passed by Congress March 23, 1971. Ratified July 1, 1971. Note: Amendment 14, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 1 of the 26th amendment. The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. After the Vietnam conflict in the 1960’s, many felt that if you are old enough to be drafted (18+) to fight in the U.S. military, you should be able to vote. AMENDMENT XIX (19) Passed by Congress June 4, 1919. Ratified August 18, 1920. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account sex. The Nineteenth Amendment of the U. S. of Constitution banned the restriction of voting based on sex/gender. Timeline of Women’s suffrage 1893 New Zealand 1902 Australia1 1906 Finland 1913 Norway 1915 Denmark 1917 Canada2 1918 Austria, Germany, Poland, Russia 1919 Netherlands 1920 United States 1921 Sweden 1928 Britain, Ireland 1931 Spain 1944 France 1945 Italy 1947 Argentina, Japan, Mexico, Pakistan 1949 China 1950 India 1954 Colombia 1957 Malaysia, Zimbabwe 1962 Algeria 1963 Iran, Morocco 1964 Libya 1967 Ecuador 1971 Switzerland 1972 Bangladesh 1974 Jordan 1976 Portugal 1989 Namibia 1990 Western Samoa 1993 Kazakhstan, Moldova 1994 South Africa 2005 Kuwait 2006 United Arab Emirates 2011 Saudi Arabia3 Bad Romance: ‘Til We Have Suffrage AMENDMENT XIV (14) Passed by Congress June 13, 1866. Ratified July 9, 1868. Note: Article I, section 2, of the Constitution was modified by section 2 of the 14th amendment. Section 2 of the Fourteenth Amendment repealed the 3/5 clause of the Constitution which only counted 3/5 of each slave towards the population of eachshall state.be apportioned among Representatives This means that slaves were now freed the several States according to their respective based on the Thirteenth Amendment and numbers, counting whole number of made full citizens under the the Fourteenth Amendment. persons in each State… It also distinguished …the right to vote in any election male the voting age as 21 limited to male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one citizens. years of age, and citizens of the United States AMENDMENT XXIV (24) Passed by Congress August 27, 1962. Ratified January 23, 1964. The right of citizens of the United States Some states instituted taxes, to vote…shall not be denied or or fees, that had to be paid in abridged by the United States or any order to vote, knowing that State by reason of failure to pay poll many poor people would be tax or other tax. unable to afford the fee. This practice was stopped by the 24th Amendment AMENDMENT XV (15) Passed by Congress February 26, 1869. Ratified February 3, 1870. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or The Fifteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution previous condition of servitude-banned the restriction of voting based on race or previous servitude. Only applied to men. AMENDMENT XIII (13) Passed by Congress January 31, 1865. Ratified December 6, 1865. Note: A portion of Article IV, section 2, of the Constitution was superseded by the 13th amendment. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Slaves were considered property and were not considered American citizens. This meant they were restricted from voting. Once the thirteenth amendment was passed, they were still not permitted to vote – just because slavery was illegal, it did not make them citizens.. Put it on the line! In your group, create a timeline of voting rights. Include: The year The Amendment Number A summary of the Amendment The group impacted* An illustration of the Amendment Seeking Suffrage Timeline AMENDMENT XIII (13) Ratified December 6, 1865. Abolished slavery AMENDMENT XV (15) Ratified February 3, 1870. Banned the restriction of voting based on race. AMENDMENT XIV (14) Ratified July 9, 1868. Established that all former slaves were considered full citizens; repealed the 3/5 compromise. Also set the voting age at 21+. Seeking Suffrage Timeline AMENDMENT XIX (19) Ratified August 18, 1920. Banned the restriction of voting on the basis of gender. AMENDMENT XXVI (26) Ratified July 1, 1971. Voting age lowered to 18. AMENDMENT XXIV (24) Ratified January 23, 1964. Poll taxes were banned. Citizens would no longer have to pay to vote. 18+ Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 Prior to this Act, Native Americans had been denied the right to vote due to the fact that they were not counted as citizens because they were citizens of their tribe and did not pay taxes to the United States government. It was required Native Americans to give up their tribal citizenship in order to become full citizens of the United States. The Indian Citizenship Act declared all noncitizen Native Americans born within the United States citizenship, thus granting them the right to vote. What if these amendments had never been added to the Constitution? Who would be unable to vote? African Americans Female citizens Native Americans Citizens who are poor Citizens who are uneducated Citizens under the age of 18 What do you think? Who should not be allowed to vote? Those under the age of 18 Non-citizens residing in the United States Illegal aliens Prisoners This includes in some states those who are incarcerated and recently released from prison. This means you! This could include those in the United states who are studying abroad or working in the United States on a visa This refers to those who live in the United States illegally What do you think? On your See It My Way handout, you will need to tell about the group that is not allowed to vote in the United States. Provide arguments for and against allowing these populations to vote. Be sure to explain your position very clearly! Anyone else? Who would you target? If you could propose a constitutional amendment to ban discrimination of certain groups, who would you target? If you could propose an amendment to the Constitution to not allow certain groups to vote, what would you propose? Compulsory Voting Should we require citizens to vote? With such a low percentage of persons in the United States who actually vote, what would happen if we amended the Constitution to require everyone to vote? Some countries have such a requirement. What are the pros and cons of such a policy?