ITALY THE REGIONS OF ITALY • Italy has 20 states/regions. • Each region had its own government, language, culture, and cuisine. • Each region has its own pasta, oil/fat, sauce. • In 1861 the regions unified GEOGRAPHY OF ITALY • Many islands • Boot-shaped peninsula. • Mountains: Alps in the north & the Apennines in the south. • In between each mountain range is the Po Valley. • North: fertile • South: dry STAPLE FOODS • Olive oil • Tomatoes • Garlic • Seafood • Whole grains/rice • Pasta • Beans • Dark leafy greens • Meat Each region has a specific style of food MEAL TIMES • Main meal is at 1 PM • Primo – soup, risotto, or pasta • Secondo – fish, meat or veg based main course + vegetables + bread Small servings TABLE MANNERS Formal meal Antipasto Soup Pasta Main dish Salad Cheese Dessert Fruit Espresso/drinks • Begin eating “BuÒn appetito!” • Knife in right hand, fork in left hand. • Keep hands visible above the table. • No elbows • Do not slurp pasta • Do not conduct business while eating • Bread is for dipping in sauce, not an appetizer YEAST • A non-green plant • Leavening agent (makes things rise) • Sugar: feeds the yeast, adds flavor • Liquid: activates gluten formation • 105˚ - 115˚ • Too hot = kills yeast • Too cold = won’t activate yeast YEAST BREADS Yeast breads usually have to rise twice before baking: • 1st time = after mixing • 2nd time = after shaping • Dough can be placed in the refrigerator to slow rising time.