Mission Settlements

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1
Mission Settlements
First Mission Are Built
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Spain Looks to Texas
• 1682 – mission at Corpus Christi de la
Ysleta established (El Paso)
• Most Spanish activity in East Texas
• Fear of French settlements - ↑ in building
missions, presidios (military settlements),
and towns
• Learned of La Salle’s fort – sent Alonso de
León to destroy fort
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A Tejas Mission
• De León goes NW and meets group of
Hasinai (called Tejas – meaning friend)
• Angelina served as a guide and interpreter
– Only woman to have county, river, national
forest, and town named after her
• Father Damián Massanet sought to have
mission built in East Texas
– June 1, 1690 – San Francisco de los Tejas
4
A Mission Abandoned
• San Francisco de los Tejas faced troubles
– Drought, disease, and rejection of Catholic faith
• France no longer a threat; therefore, mission abandoned
• 1699 – Mission San Juan Bautista “Mother of Texas Missions”
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Built near present-day Eagle Pass on Rio Grande
Provided series of river crossings
Grew into 3 missions, a presidio, and a town
Base for many expeditions into East Texas
Provided grain, cattle, and horses to E. Tex missionaries
• Father Francisco Hidalgo asks permission to return to E. Tex but is
ignored
5
France Threatens Again
• 1699 – French colony established along mouth of Mississippi River
• French not interested in taking Indian territory or converting to
Catholicism
• Made large profits by exchanging blankets, guns, and wine for furs,
and skins
• Hoped to trade with Spanish merchants in Mexico, but Spanish law
prohibited foreigners from trading in Spanish colonies
• Father Hidalgo asks French to establish mission among Tejas
• French see offer as an opening to trade
• Louis de St. Denis sent to negotiate with Spanish
• Captain Diego Ramón alarmed at unexpected arrival of French – St.
Denis arrested but later allowed to escort Spanish to East Texas
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Mission Settlements
Spanish Settlements
Chapter 5
Section 2
7
Missions Are Established in East
Texas
• 1716 Spanish return to East Texas
• Spanish families come as well
• 1717 – 6 missions and a presidio (Nuestra Señora de
los Dolores de los Tejas)
8
San Antonio is Founded
• Need for midway settlement between Rio
Grande and East Texas
• Spanish of East Texas had to trade with
French or starve
• Presidio San Antonio de Bexar built in 1718
• Father Antonio de San Buenaventrua y
Olivares founded San Antonio de Valero
9
Aguayo Defends the Missions
• 1719 – War breaks out between Spain and France
• French soldiers seize Spanish mission near
Nacogdoches
• Mission priest exaggerates size of invasion and
causes a panic of Spanish families
• Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo heads to East
Texas with 500 soldiers-settlers, thousands of
horses and mules, and large herds of sheep and
cattle
10
Aguayo Founds Two Cities
• Nuestra Señora del Pilar de los Adaes
established in Louisiana – made unofficial
capital of Texas for almost 50 years
• La Bahía del Espíritu Santo created near La
Salle’s old fort (Fort St. Louis)
11
An Uneasy Peace
• Aguayo established 9 missions, 2 villages,
and 4 presidios
• 1727 – Spain’s expenses too high
• 3 missions moved to San Antonio
• Boundary between Spain and France Texas
– Arroyo Hondo – river between Los Adaes and
Natchitoches (Louisiana)
12
Plains People Resent Missions
• East Texas Native Americans not interested and
left missionaries alone
• Plains culture resent invasion of hunting grounds
– Apaches raided San Antonio
– Comanches fought invaders and took Spanish horses
• San Xavier missions established and abandoned
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Apache raids
Smallpox and measles
Drought
Tonkawas left
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San Sabá Mission Fails
• 1757 – mission found in central Texas
• Apaches wanted mission as protection
against Comanches
• Comanches attacks took 30 lives
• Failure due to lack of supplies and people as
well as distance from help
14
Mission Settlements
Building Communities
Chapter 5 Section3
15
Life in the Missions
• Teach Native Americans the Spanish way of life
• Sometimes force was used
• Native Americans
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Kept busy from dawn to dusk
Started each day with prayers
Children attended school
Women wove cloth, molded pottery, & cooked
Men farmed, learned carpentry, or blacksmithing
• Most Native Americans refused to stay at the
missions
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Soldiers Face Hardships
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Isolated and poorly equipped
Difficult and dangerous duties
Protect the mission and nearby settlements
Maintain control over the Native Americans
Scout countryside for intruders
Military families brought to missions
17
Important Settlements in Spanish
Texas
• San Antonio
– Largest settlement
– Only authorized settlement with a voice in the
government
– Elected an ayuntamiento (city council) and an
alcalde (chief official)
• Los Adaes
• Nacogdoches
18
Living in Spanish Texas
• Mainly farmers – irrigated fields through an
elaborate system of canals
• Ranchers
• Shopkeepers, barbers, tax collectors,
servants, tailors, blacksmiths
• Population – Spaniards, Native Americans,
Mestizos (mixture of Spanish and Native
American)
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A Tejano Heritage Takes Shape
• Tejano – person of Mexican heritage who
considers Texas his/her home
• Population
• Religion
• Language
• Customs today
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