Lesson Aim • To select a range of punctuation for effect. ( ) ? … , “ ! ” What is a semi-colon? • A small piece of punctuation that looks like this ; Why is it used? It is used instead of a full-stop to balance to sentences or clauses which are closely related in meaning. Some people do their best work in the early morning; others work best late at night. Many people dislike walking in the rain and getting wet; personally I rather like it. Where should the semi-colons be? • Elephants live in hot countries. They cool off by bathing. • English at St James’ is a real success. Our lessons are really top quality! To separate two parts of a sentence when they are closely related • •Elephants Elephantslive liveininhot hotcountries; countries;they theycool cool off offby bybathing. bathing. • •English EnglishatatStStJames’ James’School Schoolisisaareal real success; success;our ourlessons lessonsare aretop topquality! quality! Where should the semi-colons be? Re-write the passage. • St James’ School is great for many things. This includes the quality of the teaching. It is good because of the excellence of the buildings and the wonderful cafeterias. The intelligence and helpfulness of the pupils is pretty good too. What is a colon? • A part of your stomach • A punctuation mark that looks like this : What are its uses? • To introduce a quotation or list I am only able to survive financially by: - not having more than three credit cards - paying off part of the debt each month - not going out more than twice a week • To add emphasis to a point by putting it on its own There’s one word to describe how I felt about Maths at school: terrible! Where would we put the colons? • In scene 5, Romeo states “Juliet, I love your hat” • There are many ways to make money sell your kidney, rob a bank, invent something amazing etc. To introduce a quotation or list • In scene 5, Romeo states: “Juliet: I love your hat” • There are many ways to make money: sell your kidney, rob a bank, invent something amazing etc. Where would we put the colon? • There’s only one word I can use to describe English. Fabulous. To isolate a point for emphasis • There’s only one word I can use to describe English: Fabulous. Your task: Add colons to the following sentences 1. You will need these items a pen, pencil, notepad and screwdriver 2. The poem touched upon our common experience ‘Life and love are hard, take care the way you play each card’ 3. As a student living in London I know all about money pressures rent food and books mean I have no money left for going out 4. The most important items for the journey are a pair of boots, plenty of waterproofing clothes and a good sense of humour. Dashes or brackets: - or ()? Dashes and brackets perform similar functions. They are useful for separating off parts of a sentence which introduce additional information which could be left out. Dashes are often used in newspaper reporting ; brackets are used a lot in descriptive writing. Look at the following examples: Dashes Dr Jones, head of international research, told the meeting – organised to express concern about the Atkins diet – that there wasn’t a shred of evidence that the diet worked. Two internet companies accepted my application to play poker immediately. Three further companies – Poker, Poker.com, Full House International and Cards Away – said they would notify me in ten days. Brackets After school, I went to a University in Scotland (my parents were opposed to the idea as they wanted me close by) to study Forensic Science. There I met Professor Frankenstein talking animatedly to a group of students (they were film/media students mostly, though some were medical students). I knew immediately that he was going to be a powerful influence on my life. Dashes Dashes also introduce afterthoughts, particularly those of a surprising or unexpected nature. Brackets are not used in this way: She says she won’t be joining us this summer – at least not until after the children have left. Everyone turned up for my twenty-first birthday – including Peter and Jane from Australia which was a surprise. Punctuation Checklist • • • • • • • • • • • Capital letters Full stops Commas Semi-colons Colons Exclamation marks Question marks Speech Marks Ellipsis Dashes Paragraphs • Do not begin your sentences with AND, BUT, BECAUSE, ALSO. Correct these sentences. 1 My sister and her new boyfriend are coming to dinner tonight I hope he likes pasta. 2. There’s only word for English amazing. 3. My sister was taller than me when we were young now I am the tallest it is much better. 4. I love football training I love trying to score goals and my coach is friendly. 5. I don’t want much for my birthday just an Ipod and a DVD player. 6. Blue is my favourite colour it is the colour of the sky and the sea and it reminds me of my favourite insect which is a butterfly. 7. When I get older I want to have a lots of pets I like owning animals. 8. We usually leave at 11:00 but today is different we are leaving at 10:30. 9. The days of the week I like best are Tuesday, Saturday and Sunday. 10. We should get moving there’s no time to waste. Correct these sentences. 1 My sister and her new boyfriend are coming to dinner tonight; I hope he likes pasta. 2. There’s only one word for English: amazing! 3. My sister was taller than me when we were young; now I am the tallest it is much better. 4. I love football training; I love trying to score goals and my coach is friendly. 5. I don’t want much for my birthday; just an Ipod and a DVD player. 6. Blue is my favourite colour (it is the colour of the sky and the sea) and it reminds me of my favourite insect which is a butterfly. 7. When I get older I want to have a lots of pets; I like owning animals. 8. We usually leave at 11:00 but today is different - we are leaving at 10:30. 9. The days of the week I like best are: Tuesday, Saturday and Sunday. 10. We should get moving: there’s no time to waste! Write your own • Write your own sentences and practise the punctuation using apostrophes, dashes, colons, semi-colons etc.