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MAYAN CIVILIZATION
向娟 312010050201137
杨舒麟312010050201132
曾万清312010050201129
杨德兰312010050201130
Ⅴ.
4/9/2015
2012
The Origin of Maya
• The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican (中美洲)
civilization, noted for the only known fully developed
written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well
as its art, architecture, and mathematical and
astronomical systems. Initially established during the
Preclassic period, many of these reached their apogee
(顶点) of development during the Classic period (c.
250 CE to 900 CE), and continued throughout the
Postclassic period until the arrival of the Spanish. At its
peak, it was one of the most densely(密集地)
populated and culturally dynamic societies in the world.
Geographical extent
• The Maya civilization
extended throughout the
present-day southern
Mexican states of Chiapas,
Tabasco, and the Yucatán
Peninsula states of
Quintana Roo, Campeche
and Yucatán. The Maya area
also extended throughout
the northern Central
American region, including
the present-day nations of
Guatemala, Belize, western
Honduras and extreme
northern El Salvador.
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Character & Religions
• Maya script
• The Mayan script, also known as Mayan
glyphs or Mayan hieroglyphs象形文字, is
the writing system of the Maya civilization
of Mesoamerica, presently the only
Mesoamerican writing system that has
been substantially deciphered. Maya
writing used logograms 速写
complemented by a set of syllabic glyphs,
somewhat similar in function to modern
Japanese writing.
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religion
• The most important source on traditional
Maya religion is the Mayas themselves: the
incumbents(牧师) of positions within the
religious hierarchy, diviners(占卜者), and
tellers of tales, and more generally all those
persons who shared their knowledge with
outsiders (such as anthropologists) in the past
and continue to do this until today.
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• They worship helios, rain god, god of death, Mars, grain, god
of corn du,etc.Apollo occupies above the gods, revered as god
incarnate. In addition, line ancestor worship, believe in the
immortality of the soul. The mayan countries also looks after
religious affairs. The capital for religious center.
• (他们崇拜太阳神、雨神、五谷神、死神、战神、风神、
玉米神等神。太阳神居于诸神之上,被尊为上帝的化身。
另外,行祖先崇拜,相信灵魂不灭。玛雅国家兼管宗教事
务。首都即为宗教中心)
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Calendar
• The Maya calendar, connected to networks of
sacrificial shrines, is fundamental for ritual(仪
式) life.
• The Mayans had a complex calendar system-based on the solar calendar, the lunar
calendar, and the Tzolkin卓尔金历日 .
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the expression of calendar
• The Mayan believed a month (Wu Na) equal
to 20 days (gold),and one year (shield) equal
to 18 Month (Wu Na) of The Mayan calendar,
Coupled with the year 5 are not listed, the
actual death: days of the year for 365 days,
which coincided(同时发生) with the modern
understanding of the earth's rotation time
history match
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• From 1948 to 1952, Professor Alberto Ruz Lhuiller,
an archaeologist from Mexico, found an anaglyph
engraved with 9 full-dress god officers and a young
man with a wonderful tire in a huge stone chamber.
After carefully observation, to their surprise, they
found that there was a youth with a helmet
operating a streamlined sophisticated machine
which looked like an aircraft!
• 在1948到1952年间,墨西哥籍考古学家路利教授
(Alberto Ruz Lhuiller)发现在巨大石室的墙上刻
有九位盛装的神官,及一位带有奇妙头饰的青年
浮雕。经过仔细地观察,令每个人都惊奇的是他
们发现这个戴着头盔的青年正在操纵一个流线型
的尖端的酷似飞行器的机器!
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• Did the solar son take a rocket to the earth
and meet the Mayans? Why? If this is not the
case , what does this anaglyph mean? Did the
Mayans invent a rocket? How did they make
it ?
• 是太阳之子驾着火箭来到地球并与玛雅人见面吗?为什
么?如果情况并非如此,这个浮雕到底想告诉我们什么
呢?玛雅人发明了火箭?他们怎么做到的?
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水晶头骨盖
• The mayan crystal skull is made of
crystal and has been existed at least
3600 years.It is the most delicate crystal
skull and the only one whose
submaxillary can be moved so far.
• 玛雅水晶头颅是用一块水晶凿成的。它是
迄今为止发现的最精致、并且唯一一只下
颚骨可以活动的水晶头颅。
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• It's said that mayan pontifex used it
when holding secret ceremony and when
pontifex announced the order of doom
defending on it the doom wouldn't
avoid.So it was described the evil
embodiment.
• 根据传说,玛雅人的大祭司在举行秘密仪
式时使用它。据说当他借助这个头骨发布
死令时,死亡将无可避免地降临。它被形
容为所有邪恶的化身。
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• This crystal skull is very realistic to carve.Not
only its appearance,but also the internal
structure correspond to human beings' skull
skeleton totally.What's more ,the
technological level was very high and it can
emit bright shine.
• 这颗水晶人头雕刻得非常逼真。不仅外
观,而且内部结构都与人的颅骨骨骼构造
完全相符。而且工艺水平极高,发出眩目
的亮光。
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• The mayan crystal skull has three secrets。
Firstly ,it can stimulate our brain.The second is
that it can break out some sound.The last is its
material of high rigidity crystal.These strange
features are can not be complete till now.
• 玛雅水晶头颅有三大秘密:1它能刺激人的
大脑;2头颅会发出神秘的声音;3水晶的
硬度极大(制作过程是水晶碎成小块——当
代人无法复制)
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The mayan five city-states ask Karl (Guatemala)
玛雅五大城邦之提卡尔(危地马拉)
提卡尔是玛雅最繁荣
的城邦,拥有最多和最高
神庙。
历史可追溯到约公元
前700年,强盛于公元300
到450年左右,公元900年
时神秘地被弃置。
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一号神庙
The mayan five cities at chichen itza (Mexico)
玛雅五大城邦之奇琴伊察(墨西哥)
此处遗址多完成于12世纪,1450年左右被废弃
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千柱建筑群,战士神庙
Mayan city of Wuxi Five Martha (Mexico)
玛雅五大城邦之乌希玛尔(墨西哥)
攀登巫师金字塔,高35米,呈60度,步步惊心!
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Mayan city of Palenque five (Mexico)
玛雅五大城邦之帕伦克(墨西哥)
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ji ming temple
记铭神庙
建于公元692年,高25米,
是巴卡尔国王的陵墓
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Mayan Prophecy(玛雅预言)
(预言)
Ⅱ.
The end of Maya
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The advent of
Rocket ,plane,car..
Ⅲ.
Adolf Hitler (1889—1945)
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The World Wars
The rise and fall of Maya
Periods:
A. Starting:from 10c BC to 3c
AD(agriculture, slavery)
B.Development:from 3c AD to 9c
AD(slavery urban civilization)
C.Falling:Ⅰ.10c to 16c(theunbalanced
civilization betwehen the North and the
South)
Ⅱ.17c(conquered by Spain)
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Why did the Maya vanish?
Reasons:■Drought
■Deforestation(砍伐
森林)
■The Civil War
■Going to other
planet
4/9/2015
THANK YOU
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