Short Stories PPT

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SHORT STORIES
(NOTES, LITERARY TERMS,
GRAMMAR)
“THE BET” – ANTON CHEKHOV
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Russian – (1860-1904)
Was a doctor before he chose to be
a full-time writer.
Wrote and completed many of his
stories in an hour or two.
“Chekhov’s Gun” – If you
acknowledge an item in the
beginning of your story, it must
return by the end of the story and
serve a purpose.
“THE BET” ASSIGNMENT
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What is the meaning or motivation behind this
story? And how can you relate it to your world?
How does the lawyer’s characterization change
after fifteen years in isolation? How has the
banker’s character changed?
NARRATION (POINT OF VIEW) NOTES
 First-person
narrative – The narrator calls
themselves “I.” This is their story, from their perspective.
Some are aware that they are telling a story, some are
merely “thinking aloud” to the readers.
 Second-person
narrative – Refers to the characters
as “you.” A difficult style to manage, it places the reader
into the role of a character who cannot control his or her
own fate.
 Third-person,
objective - tells a story without
describing any character's thoughts or feelings. Like a flyon-the-wall.
NARRATION (POINT OF VIEW)
 Third-person,
subjective - the narrator conveys the
thoughts, feelings, etc. of one or more characters.
* Limited – the narrator only conveys the
thoughts of one character
* Omniscient – the narrator conveys the
thoughts of any and all characters.
 Unreliable
narrator – a narrator who does not
know everything that is happening in the story or is
lying to the reader
IT’S POE-TIME!
“THE CASK OF THE AMONTILLADO”
– EDGAR ALLAN POE
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American – (1809-1849)
Was a superstar at the height of
his career. He was hired to do
poetry readings for parties and so
on.
Often depressed, even more after
his wife died suddenly, Poe
spiraled into alcoholism and died.
“THE CASK OF THE AMONTILLADO”
ASSIGNMENT
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What type of narration is this written in?
According to Montresor, what makes a perfect
crime?
What character traits in Fortunato make him an
easy target for Montresor?
How is Montresor an unreliable narrator?
BW: FINDING A MOTIVE
 Suppose
you are a detective assigned to the case at
the time it happened. Write a half-page report with
your theory about the disappearance of Fortunato
(you can have fun with this!):
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Example: "Montresor is the last member of an old
aristocratic Catholic family that lost its money. Fortunato
was a businessman who had recently become wealthy and
wasn’t above cheating to make money. Fortunato also was
a member of the Masons, a secret Protestant organization
that Catholics cannot join. These facts explain Montresor’s
hatred of Fortunato. They also supply him with a motive
for murder."
CHARACTER AND LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY
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PROTAGONIST = good guy/lead character
ANTAGONIST = villain
Voice – the writer’s or speaker’s distinctive use of
language
Diction – the writer’s or speaker’s choice of words
(slang, simplistic, flowery language, etc.)
Tone – the attitude conveyed through the writer’s or
speaker’s words (mocking, affectionate, etc.)
MOTIVATION AND INFERENCE
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Motivation – the reason for a character’s behavior
Inferences – an educated guess based on clues from a story
***
Symbolism
• Symbol – person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and
for something beyond itself as well
• Figurative language – refers to words, and groups of words,
that exaggerate or alter the usual meanings of the component
words. (opposite of literal language)
• Allegory – a narrative in which characters and settings stand for
abstract ideas or moral lessons
“CHRYSANTHEMUMS” – JOHN
STEINBECK
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American – (1902-1968)
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Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winner
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West-coast focused
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Wrote to the common man of the
Great Depression era
“If you are using dialogue—say it
aloud as you write it. Only then
will it have the sound of speech.”
“CHRYSANTHEMUMS” ASSIGNMENT
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Describe the setting in your own words. It’s mentioned in
great detail, so why is the setting important to this story?
Describe Steinbeck’s “voice” (characterization, dialogue,
pace) and diction in this story.
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Explain Elisa’s relationship with her husband Henry.
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Describe the personality of the salesman.
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How does the chrysanthemum plant symbolize Elisa?
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Think of an item that symbolizes you. What is it and
how/why does it reflect who you are?
“GOLDEN KITE, SILVER WIND” –
RAY BRADBURY
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American – (1920-2012)
One of the greatest science-fiction
writers of the 20th century in both
literature and television.
Used a typewriter for all of his
writing up until his death this
year.
“GOLDEN KITE, SILVER WIND”
ASSIGNMENT
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What motivates the two towns to engage in the
wall-building competition? What are the negative
effects of the competition on the townspeople?
Explain what “One without the other is nothing”
means.
Fully explain in 5+ sentences how this story
functions as an allegory about the Cold War.
“THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH”
– EDGAR ALLAN POE
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Poe is back, and now he wants to go
to a fancy-dress party!
“RED DEATH” P.O.V. ASSIGNMENT
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Write for a half page about how the story
would have differed if we followed the
point of view of Death throughout the
entire story. First, tell me what form of
narration this new story has and then
what form it would be if the entire story
came directly from the Red Death’s
thoughts. What changes when we shift
perspective? Consider setting, surprise,
and characterization.
Now, get out a piece of blank paper
and draw the Black Room. Poe gave
you a lot of details that should make
this easy to visualize!
THE MAIN IDEA IS?..
Of all the representatives sent abroad by Congress in the early
part of the Revolutionary war to secure aid of various kinds from
certain friendly nations, no one has equaled Benjamin Franklin in
ability, tact, common sense, diplomacy, and reputation that was
national as well as world wide. Any government to which he was
assigned received an unusual personality.
When Franklin went to France in the early part of the
Revolution as the official diplomat and ambassador of the thirteen
colonies, he came as a man of maturity, brilliance, ability, and as a
world statesman. Upon his arrival in Paris, there was no other
statesman or philosopher who could equal him in his ability and
accomplishments. His presence in Paris annoyed the British minister
and staff. Franklin enjoyed the situation. The years he remained in
Paris were unusually fruitful ones for America and helping to work
out the future destiny of the United States of America. In the early
1950's the United States published ten volumes of the United States
Foreign Affairs during the Revolution, and the major part of the ten
volumes covers the work of Franklin.
The colonies indeed needed help of every description--men,
money, equipment, ships, and all things to fight a successful war. The
long years of enmity between France and Britain opened the way for
the leadership of Franklin. And he was not only the man to exploit it,
but also the reason for the acceptance of thirteen states as a
recognized nation in the world of nations.
NONFICTION TERMINOLOGY
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Thesis – one or two sentences in which you identify the
main idea of your paper
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Synthesizing – putting all the pieces together to create a
coherent combined whole
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Paraphrasing – summarizing the writer’s most important
ideas in your own words
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Evidence – the specific details used to support a thesis –
quotes, summaries, etc.
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Elaboration – the connections you create for your readers
so that they understand your analysis of the subject matter
NON-FICTION PRACTICE
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Complete the Edgar Allen Poe Webquest
Read the four articles pertaining to Edgar Allen
Poe’s death. (pgs. 221-228)
Answer the Test Practice questions on p. 229230
Look at page 221. Make a Main Idea/Support
chart for each article. Be sure that you include at
least two examples of supporting evidence for
each main idea. (Four articles/letters)
THEME
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Theme – the central idea of a work of literature (ex: “Love
is more powerful than hatred,” “no one wins in war”)
Conflict – struggle or clash between opposing characters or
opposing forces
* External conflict – struggle caused by an outside force
(nature, another character, society, etc)
* Internal conflict – takes place entirely inside the
character’s own mind (desires, emotions, etc)
** Think of three movies you like and come up with their
themes.
IRONY AND AMBIGUITY
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Irony – contrast between expectation and reality
* Verbal Irony – a writer or speaker says one thing but
means something completely different (sarcasm)
* Situation Irony – when there is a contrast between
what would seem appropriate and what really happens (a
contradiction of expectation)
* Dramatic Irony – when the audience/reader knows
something important that a character does not known (most
often occurs in plays)
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Ambiguity – an element of uncertainty in a text, in which
something can be interpreted in a number of different ways
“HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN
NEED?” – LEO TOLSTOY
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Russian – (1828-1910)
He came from a wealthy family.
An early believer of Marxism and
Communism, Tolstoy gave away
most of his possessions and lived a
simple life.
Considered one of the fathers of
Russia’s Golden Age of Literature
“HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN
NEED?” ASSIGNMENT
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Contrast Pahom and the Bashkir chief’s attitudes
about land. Why are their views different?
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What is the theme of this story?
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What is ironic about the final line of the story?
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How does the conversation between the two sisters
at the beginning of the story foreshadow Pahom’s
end?
“POISON” – ROALD DAHL
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Welsh – (1916-1990)
Best known for his kids’ stories,
but also has written a lot of adult
stories, many in war-settings.
Story takes place in India at the
time that England had colonized
the country.
“POISON” ASSIGNMENT
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Explain all of the meanings that the word “poison”
can mean in this story – literally and symbolically.
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What is ironic in this story?
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What is ambiguous about it?
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Give an example of internal conflict and external
conflict happening in the story.
“THE STRING” – GUY DE
MAUPASSANT
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French – (1850-1893)
Prolific writer best known for his
short stories with ironic twists.
“THE STRING” ASSIGNMENT
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Who is the protagonist of the story? The
antagonist?
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What is the main conflict in the story?
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What is the theme?
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What is ironic in the story? What type of irony is
that?
“A ROSE FOR EMILY” – WILLIAM
FAULKNER
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American – (1897-1962)
Grew up in Mississippi, stories
focus on the decay of the “old
South”
Another Nobel Prize winner
“A ROSE FOR EMILY” ASSIGNMENT

Put the events in this story in chronological order!
Just make a simple timeline and summarize what
happens during each event.
NOW THAT YOU KNOW WHAT IT
TAKES TO MAKE A SHORT STORY…
TIME TO MAKE YOUR OWN SHORT
STORY!
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