SHORT STORIES (NOTES, LITERARY TERMS, GRAMMAR) “THE BET” – ANTON CHEKHOV Russian – (1860-1904) Was a doctor before he chose to be a full-time writer. Wrote and completed many of his stories in an hour or two. “Chekhov’s Gun” – If you acknowledge an item in the beginning of your story, it must return by the end of the story and serve a purpose. “THE BET” ASSIGNMENT What is the meaning or motivation behind this story? And how can you relate it to your world? How does the lawyer’s characterization change after fifteen years in isolation? How has the banker’s character changed? NARRATION (POINT OF VIEW) NOTES First-person narrative – The narrator calls themselves “I.” This is their story, from their perspective. Some are aware that they are telling a story, some are merely “thinking aloud” to the readers. Second-person narrative – Refers to the characters as “you.” A difficult style to manage, it places the reader into the role of a character who cannot control his or her own fate. Third-person, objective - tells a story without describing any character's thoughts or feelings. Like a flyon-the-wall. NARRATION (POINT OF VIEW) Third-person, subjective - the narrator conveys the thoughts, feelings, etc. of one or more characters. * Limited – the narrator only conveys the thoughts of one character * Omniscient – the narrator conveys the thoughts of any and all characters. Unreliable narrator – a narrator who does not know everything that is happening in the story or is lying to the reader IT’S POE-TIME! “THE CASK OF THE AMONTILLADO” – EDGAR ALLAN POE American – (1809-1849) Was a superstar at the height of his career. He was hired to do poetry readings for parties and so on. Often depressed, even more after his wife died suddenly, Poe spiraled into alcoholism and died. “THE CASK OF THE AMONTILLADO” ASSIGNMENT What type of narration is this written in? According to Montresor, what makes a perfect crime? What character traits in Fortunato make him an easy target for Montresor? How is Montresor an unreliable narrator? BW: FINDING A MOTIVE Suppose you are a detective assigned to the case at the time it happened. Write a half-page report with your theory about the disappearance of Fortunato (you can have fun with this!): Example: "Montresor is the last member of an old aristocratic Catholic family that lost its money. Fortunato was a businessman who had recently become wealthy and wasn’t above cheating to make money. Fortunato also was a member of the Masons, a secret Protestant organization that Catholics cannot join. These facts explain Montresor’s hatred of Fortunato. They also supply him with a motive for murder." CHARACTER AND LANGUAGE TERMINOLOGY PROTAGONIST = good guy/lead character ANTAGONIST = villain Voice – the writer’s or speaker’s distinctive use of language Diction – the writer’s or speaker’s choice of words (slang, simplistic, flowery language, etc.) Tone – the attitude conveyed through the writer’s or speaker’s words (mocking, affectionate, etc.) MOTIVATION AND INFERENCE Motivation – the reason for a character’s behavior Inferences – an educated guess based on clues from a story *** Symbolism • Symbol – person, place, thing, or event that stands for itself and for something beyond itself as well • Figurative language – refers to words, and groups of words, that exaggerate or alter the usual meanings of the component words. (opposite of literal language) • Allegory – a narrative in which characters and settings stand for abstract ideas or moral lessons “CHRYSANTHEMUMS” – JOHN STEINBECK American – (1902-1968) Pulitzer and Nobel Prize winner West-coast focused Wrote to the common man of the Great Depression era “If you are using dialogue—say it aloud as you write it. Only then will it have the sound of speech.” “CHRYSANTHEMUMS” ASSIGNMENT Describe the setting in your own words. It’s mentioned in great detail, so why is the setting important to this story? Describe Steinbeck’s “voice” (characterization, dialogue, pace) and diction in this story. Explain Elisa’s relationship with her husband Henry. Describe the personality of the salesman. How does the chrysanthemum plant symbolize Elisa? Think of an item that symbolizes you. What is it and how/why does it reflect who you are? “GOLDEN KITE, SILVER WIND” – RAY BRADBURY American – (1920-2012) One of the greatest science-fiction writers of the 20th century in both literature and television. Used a typewriter for all of his writing up until his death this year. “GOLDEN KITE, SILVER WIND” ASSIGNMENT What motivates the two towns to engage in the wall-building competition? What are the negative effects of the competition on the townspeople? Explain what “One without the other is nothing” means. Fully explain in 5+ sentences how this story functions as an allegory about the Cold War. “THE MASQUE OF THE RED DEATH” – EDGAR ALLAN POE Poe is back, and now he wants to go to a fancy-dress party! “RED DEATH” P.O.V. ASSIGNMENT Write for a half page about how the story would have differed if we followed the point of view of Death throughout the entire story. First, tell me what form of narration this new story has and then what form it would be if the entire story came directly from the Red Death’s thoughts. What changes when we shift perspective? Consider setting, surprise, and characterization. Now, get out a piece of blank paper and draw the Black Room. Poe gave you a lot of details that should make this easy to visualize! THE MAIN IDEA IS?.. Of all the representatives sent abroad by Congress in the early part of the Revolutionary war to secure aid of various kinds from certain friendly nations, no one has equaled Benjamin Franklin in ability, tact, common sense, diplomacy, and reputation that was national as well as world wide. Any government to which he was assigned received an unusual personality. When Franklin went to France in the early part of the Revolution as the official diplomat and ambassador of the thirteen colonies, he came as a man of maturity, brilliance, ability, and as a world statesman. Upon his arrival in Paris, there was no other statesman or philosopher who could equal him in his ability and accomplishments. His presence in Paris annoyed the British minister and staff. Franklin enjoyed the situation. The years he remained in Paris were unusually fruitful ones for America and helping to work out the future destiny of the United States of America. In the early 1950's the United States published ten volumes of the United States Foreign Affairs during the Revolution, and the major part of the ten volumes covers the work of Franklin. The colonies indeed needed help of every description--men, money, equipment, ships, and all things to fight a successful war. The long years of enmity between France and Britain opened the way for the leadership of Franklin. And he was not only the man to exploit it, but also the reason for the acceptance of thirteen states as a recognized nation in the world of nations. NONFICTION TERMINOLOGY Thesis – one or two sentences in which you identify the main idea of your paper Synthesizing – putting all the pieces together to create a coherent combined whole Paraphrasing – summarizing the writer’s most important ideas in your own words Evidence – the specific details used to support a thesis – quotes, summaries, etc. Elaboration – the connections you create for your readers so that they understand your analysis of the subject matter NON-FICTION PRACTICE Complete the Edgar Allen Poe Webquest Read the four articles pertaining to Edgar Allen Poe’s death. (pgs. 221-228) Answer the Test Practice questions on p. 229230 Look at page 221. Make a Main Idea/Support chart for each article. Be sure that you include at least two examples of supporting evidence for each main idea. (Four articles/letters) THEME Theme – the central idea of a work of literature (ex: “Love is more powerful than hatred,” “no one wins in war”) Conflict – struggle or clash between opposing characters or opposing forces * External conflict – struggle caused by an outside force (nature, another character, society, etc) * Internal conflict – takes place entirely inside the character’s own mind (desires, emotions, etc) ** Think of three movies you like and come up with their themes. IRONY AND AMBIGUITY Irony – contrast between expectation and reality * Verbal Irony – a writer or speaker says one thing but means something completely different (sarcasm) * Situation Irony – when there is a contrast between what would seem appropriate and what really happens (a contradiction of expectation) * Dramatic Irony – when the audience/reader knows something important that a character does not known (most often occurs in plays) Ambiguity – an element of uncertainty in a text, in which something can be interpreted in a number of different ways “HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED?” – LEO TOLSTOY Russian – (1828-1910) He came from a wealthy family. An early believer of Marxism and Communism, Tolstoy gave away most of his possessions and lived a simple life. Considered one of the fathers of Russia’s Golden Age of Literature “HOW MUCH LAND DOES A MAN NEED?” ASSIGNMENT Contrast Pahom and the Bashkir chief’s attitudes about land. Why are their views different? What is the theme of this story? What is ironic about the final line of the story? How does the conversation between the two sisters at the beginning of the story foreshadow Pahom’s end? “POISON” – ROALD DAHL Welsh – (1916-1990) Best known for his kids’ stories, but also has written a lot of adult stories, many in war-settings. Story takes place in India at the time that England had colonized the country. “POISON” ASSIGNMENT Explain all of the meanings that the word “poison” can mean in this story – literally and symbolically. What is ironic in this story? What is ambiguous about it? Give an example of internal conflict and external conflict happening in the story. “THE STRING” – GUY DE MAUPASSANT French – (1850-1893) Prolific writer best known for his short stories with ironic twists. “THE STRING” ASSIGNMENT Who is the protagonist of the story? The antagonist? What is the main conflict in the story? What is the theme? What is ironic in the story? What type of irony is that? “A ROSE FOR EMILY” – WILLIAM FAULKNER American – (1897-1962) Grew up in Mississippi, stories focus on the decay of the “old South” Another Nobel Prize winner “A ROSE FOR EMILY” ASSIGNMENT Put the events in this story in chronological order! Just make a simple timeline and summarize what happens during each event. NOW THAT YOU KNOW WHAT IT TAKES TO MAKE A SHORT STORY… TIME TO MAKE YOUR OWN SHORT STORY!