How to Reference - Moodle

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Referencing, Bibliographies
and Plagiarism
Referencing in context
Assignment
Read and
Take Notes
Evidence to
support your
ideas or
argument
• Paraphrase
• Direct
quote
Acknowledge
sources used
• Briefly, in
your text
• In full, at
the end
Outline
 What



is a reference?
Why reference?
When to reference
How to reference
 Within
your assignment
 At the end of your assignment
What is a Reference?


A way of showing that you have
recognised another person’s work ideas or
opinions and that you have acknowledged
it in your work by referring to the source.
This is often called citing a reference.
Why Reference?

Part of the marking criteria

Demonstrates your reading & research

Provides a check against plagiarism

An acknowledgement that you have
borrowed other people’s ideas, work or
opinions

As an aid to help others trace your
information sources

In order to meet copyright regulations
When to Reference

When you ‘lift’ material directly from a
source – a book or the Internet

When you take an idea, theory, argument
or viewpoint from a source that is not your
own

When you summarise or paraphrase
another person’s work
How to Reference
There are various systems for referencing
 Harvard system (Author/Date) is the most
popular and used at North Lindsey College
 You need to reference in two places:
 Brief details, within the main body of
your assignment, called an in-text
reference
 Full details, at the end of your
assignment, within a Reference List

How to In-Text Reference:
Direct Quotations
AUTHOR, DATE, PAGE NUMBER(S)



As Brown (2002, p.136) states, “The critical
breakthrough was achieved by Thomas Hunt
Morgan.”
According to Brown (2002, p.136), “The critical
breakthrough was achieved by Thomas Hunt
Morgan”
Thomas Hunt Morgan has recently been
described as achieving “the critical breakthrough”
(Brown, 2002, p.136)
Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on new line
and indent. No need to use quotation marks.
How to In-Text Reference:
Long Direct Quotations
Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on new line and indent on
both sides. No need to use quotation marks. For example……
Martens (1998) argued that the coach has a central
role to play in the development of the young
athlete. This argument is reinforced by Coakley
(1999), who believed that:
Young athletes need to be provided with sufficient opportunity
to develop their social skills in the presence of enthusiastic and
caring coaches who have an understanding of the factors which
are likely to motivate children towards positive participation in
various forms of physical activity. (pg 264)
Useful verbs and phrases for
introducing direct quotes

As X states/ believes/ suggests /indicates/
points out / observes/ explains/ argues/
outlines/ contradicts / proposes, “…….”.

For example, X has argued that “……”.

According to X, “…….”.

X suggests/ believes/ observes that “…..”.
How to Reference In-Text
Paraphrases
AUTHOR, DATE
Thomas Hunt Morgan made the connection
between partial linkage and the behaviour
of chromosomes when the nucleus of a
cell divides. This breakthrough was proved
to be critical (Brown, 2002).
Paraphrasing is always the better way of
referencing a source. Avoid the use of
direct
quotations
unless
absolutely
necessary
How to Reference In-Text
Paraphrases with Multiple Authors
AUTHORS, DATE
Morgan made the connection between
partial linkage and the behaviour of
chromosomes when the nucleus of a cell
divides. This breakthrough was proved to
be critical (Brown et al., 2002).
Notice how the words et al are in italics, as all
foreign words should be in italics. This should
always be adhered to
Referencing at The End of Your
Assignment
References or Bibliography – what’s the
difference?

Reference List – a single alphabetical
list by author of everything you have
specifically
mentioned
in
your
assignment

Bibliography – a list of sources you
have
read
but
not
specifically
mentioned in your assignment
What Information do I Need to
Include in the Reference List?
Name(s) of the Author(s)
 Date
 Title
 When and where it was published
 Who published it
 Web site address and date you looked at it
(only if the source is from the Internet)

Referencing Books in the Reference
List
Using the title page (not the front cover) note the:
Author(s) Jordan, R (surname always
first)
 Year of Publication ©
1999
 Name of Book, Academic Writing Course
 Place of publication
Harlow
 Publisher
Pearson Education Limited

Should look like………….
Jordan, R. R. (1999) Academic Writing Course.
Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.
Referencing Journals in the
Reference List
Using the article from the Journal, note the:






Author(s) May, K. A.
Year of Publication © 1994
Name of Article, The influence of gender roles on
activity patterns of children (all lower case)
Name of Journal, Play and Culture (Always in
italics)
Journal Volume, 3 (Always in bold)
Page Numbers, 302 - 313
Should look like………….
May, K. A. (1994) The influence of gender roles on activity patterns of children.
Play and Culture, 3, 302 – 313.
Referencing a Web site in the
Reference List
Author/editor/organisation
 Year written (or last updated)
 Title
 URL
 Date you accessed it

For future reference, ALWAYS print and
keep a copy of the web site
URL
Date Accessed
Title
Author
Black, A. (no date) About: user-centred design [online]
Available at: <http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/webdav/
servlet/ XRM?Page /@id=6004&Session/@id=D_5Up2J
QoC81Bf6PCdwWey&Section/@id=1272> [Accessed 28th
November 2003]
Have a Go
Source a book and journal from the library
 Then have a go at………..

1.
2.
3.
4.

Directly quoting from the book
Directly paraphrasing from the book
Directly paraphrasing from the journal
Producing a reference list for all your sources
you have used.
Ask your Course Leader if they will check
to see if you have presented the
information correctly and consistently
and check for plagiarism issues
What is Plagiarism?
Plagiarism Noun
 The practice of taking someone else's work
or ideas and passing them off as one's own.
 Copying , infringement of copyright , piracy ,
theft , stealing
 The process of reusing material found in any
medium. The ease with which material can be
CUT AND PASTED from the WORLD WIDE WEB
has led to a major increase in plagiarism and one
that can lead to an allegation of an academic
offence.

Avoiding Plagiarism
In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give
credit when:
 You use another person's ideas, opinions, or
theories.
 You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings,
music, etc., or any other type of information that
does not comprise common knowledge.
 You use quotations from another person's spoken
or written word.
 You paraphrase another person's spoken or
written word.
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