Referencing, Bibliographies and Plagiarism Referencing in context Assignment Read and Take Notes Evidence to support your ideas or argument • Paraphrase • Direct quote Acknowledge sources used • Briefly, in your text • In full, at the end Outline What is a reference? Why reference? When to reference How to reference Within your assignment At the end of your assignment What is a Reference? A way of showing that you have recognised another person’s work ideas or opinions and that you have acknowledged it in your work by referring to the source. This is often called citing a reference. Why Reference? Part of the marking criteria Demonstrates your reading & research Provides a check against plagiarism An acknowledgement that you have borrowed other people’s ideas, work or opinions As an aid to help others trace your information sources In order to meet copyright regulations When to Reference When you ‘lift’ material directly from a source – a book or the Internet When you take an idea, theory, argument or viewpoint from a source that is not your own When you summarise or paraphrase another person’s work How to Reference There are various systems for referencing Harvard system (Author/Date) is the most popular and used at North Lindsey College You need to reference in two places: Brief details, within the main body of your assignment, called an in-text reference Full details, at the end of your assignment, within a Reference List How to In-Text Reference: Direct Quotations AUTHOR, DATE, PAGE NUMBER(S) As Brown (2002, p.136) states, “The critical breakthrough was achieved by Thomas Hunt Morgan.” According to Brown (2002, p.136), “The critical breakthrough was achieved by Thomas Hunt Morgan” Thomas Hunt Morgan has recently been described as achieving “the critical breakthrough” (Brown, 2002, p.136) Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on new line and indent. No need to use quotation marks. How to In-Text Reference: Long Direct Quotations Larger quotes (3 lines +): Start quote on new line and indent on both sides. No need to use quotation marks. For example…… Martens (1998) argued that the coach has a central role to play in the development of the young athlete. This argument is reinforced by Coakley (1999), who believed that: Young athletes need to be provided with sufficient opportunity to develop their social skills in the presence of enthusiastic and caring coaches who have an understanding of the factors which are likely to motivate children towards positive participation in various forms of physical activity. (pg 264) Useful verbs and phrases for introducing direct quotes As X states/ believes/ suggests /indicates/ points out / observes/ explains/ argues/ outlines/ contradicts / proposes, “…….”. For example, X has argued that “……”. According to X, “…….”. X suggests/ believes/ observes that “…..”. How to Reference In-Text Paraphrases AUTHOR, DATE Thomas Hunt Morgan made the connection between partial linkage and the behaviour of chromosomes when the nucleus of a cell divides. This breakthrough was proved to be critical (Brown, 2002). Paraphrasing is always the better way of referencing a source. Avoid the use of direct quotations unless absolutely necessary How to Reference In-Text Paraphrases with Multiple Authors AUTHORS, DATE Morgan made the connection between partial linkage and the behaviour of chromosomes when the nucleus of a cell divides. This breakthrough was proved to be critical (Brown et al., 2002). Notice how the words et al are in italics, as all foreign words should be in italics. This should always be adhered to Referencing at The End of Your Assignment References or Bibliography – what’s the difference? Reference List – a single alphabetical list by author of everything you have specifically mentioned in your assignment Bibliography – a list of sources you have read but not specifically mentioned in your assignment What Information do I Need to Include in the Reference List? Name(s) of the Author(s) Date Title When and where it was published Who published it Web site address and date you looked at it (only if the source is from the Internet) Referencing Books in the Reference List Using the title page (not the front cover) note the: Author(s) Jordan, R (surname always first) Year of Publication © 1999 Name of Book, Academic Writing Course Place of publication Harlow Publisher Pearson Education Limited Should look like…………. Jordan, R. R. (1999) Academic Writing Course. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited. Referencing Journals in the Reference List Using the article from the Journal, note the: Author(s) May, K. A. Year of Publication © 1994 Name of Article, The influence of gender roles on activity patterns of children (all lower case) Name of Journal, Play and Culture (Always in italics) Journal Volume, 3 (Always in bold) Page Numbers, 302 - 313 Should look like…………. May, K. A. (1994) The influence of gender roles on activity patterns of children. Play and Culture, 3, 302 – 313. Referencing a Web site in the Reference List Author/editor/organisation Year written (or last updated) Title URL Date you accessed it For future reference, ALWAYS print and keep a copy of the web site URL Date Accessed Title Author Black, A. (no date) About: user-centred design [online] Available at: <http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/webdav/ servlet/ XRM?Page /@id=6004&Session/@id=D_5Up2J QoC81Bf6PCdwWey&Section/@id=1272> [Accessed 28th November 2003] Have a Go Source a book and journal from the library Then have a go at……….. 1. 2. 3. 4. Directly quoting from the book Directly paraphrasing from the book Directly paraphrasing from the journal Producing a reference list for all your sources you have used. Ask your Course Leader if they will check to see if you have presented the information correctly and consistently and check for plagiarism issues What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism Noun The practice of taking someone else's work or ideas and passing them off as one's own. Copying , infringement of copyright , piracy , theft , stealing The process of reusing material found in any medium. The ease with which material can be CUT AND PASTED from the WORLD WIDE WEB has led to a major increase in plagiarism and one that can lead to an allegation of an academic offence. Avoiding Plagiarism In order to avoid plagiarism, you must give credit when: You use another person's ideas, opinions, or theories. You use facts, statistics, graphics, drawings, music, etc., or any other type of information that does not comprise common knowledge. You use quotations from another person's spoken or written word. You paraphrase another person's spoken or written word.