Critical Thinking Skills: Reading and Communications 2. Communication Skills 3. Critical Thinking Skills: Mathematics 4. Computation Skills Liberal Studies: Science, Art and Literature, Social Sciences 6. Critical Thinking Skills: Writing 1. 5. 0006-Recognize effective organization in writing. 0007-Recognize sentences that effectively communicate intended message. 0008-Recognize standard conventions of formal written English usage in the United States. Audience Subject Purpose 3 (Sometimes 4) Purposes for Writing? How would you help someone find it in a parking lot? How would you fix a flat on it? And the big question: How would you convince someone to buy it? We organize ideas rather than writing like we think, thus the traditional essay format. We have to support our ideas. We have to be clear. We should respect their time enough to edit. Narrative—usually chronological although you might use flashbacks or flashforwards Description—usually spatial, left to right, top to bottom, outside to inside, etc. Process—usually sequential with listed steps Comparison/Contrast—can describe all of one subject and then the same points, in the same order, for the other subject; or, can describe point by point for Subject A and Subject B Which would you use to explain how to fix a flat? Which would you use to explain the superiority of one car over another? Version 1 Knowing a foreign language is a necessity for any business. People must be able to communicate in different languages when they encounter clients who can’t speak their language. It’s especially important in an emergency situation that everyone is able to understand each other. Confusion in that instance could affect a life or death situation. No one should dismiss the importance of this communication skill. Version 2 Knowing a foreign language could be helpful in any business, but it is especially helpful for the medical field. If someone were a nurse and a patient came in who could only describe his or her symptoms in Spanish, the nurse would want to be able to understand and assist the patient in recovery. Being bilingual could make that employee much more marketable to hospitals serving a diverse community. Version 3 Knowing a foreign language could be helpful in any business, but especially in the medical field. My sister Shannon was trying to find a job as a nurse in Houston, and since nurses are in high demand, she had her choice of a couple of hospitals, but when she told her prospective employers that she was fluent in both English and Spanish, her salary cap suddenly went up. Administrators knew that her bilingualism would be an asset to the 40% Hispanic population in their area. Shannon would be able to understand patients’ specific medical needs because she could cross the language barrier. Essay unity is kept when all paragraphs connect with the thesis, the controlling idea located where? Paragraph unity is kept when all sentences connect with the topic sentence, the controlling idea located where? Writing tip: After finishing a draft compare thesis to each paragraph’s content. Focus and flow are kept when Sentences are logically ordered. Transitions are used to reduce choppiness (not mechanical transitions) and to explain how your ideas relate to each other. Relationships shown by transition: Addition—also, and, furthermore, moreover Time—after, before, during, until Cause/Effect--because, since, therefore Contrast—however, but, although, yet I wanted to go to the formal dinner ____ I wanted to make a good impression. I wanted to go to the formal dinner ____ I couldn’t afford a new suit. I wanted to go to the formal dinner ____ I worked hard to buy a new suit. I wanted to go to the formal dinner ____ I saw the menu for it. Writing tip: Where are transitions especially needed? Recognize ineffective repetition and inefficiency in sentence construction. Identify effective placement of modifiers, parallel structure, and use of negatives in sentence formation. Recognize imprecise and inappropriate word choices. A misplaced or dangling modifier puts a descriptive phrase too far away from what is being described to be clear: “Plunging 1,000 feet into the gorge, we saw Yosemite Falls.” “Calf born to farmer with two heads” “Two cars were reported stolen by the Groveton police yesterday.” “The patient was referred to a psychiatrist with a severe emotional problem.” “No one was injured in the blast, which was attributed to a buildup of gas by one town official.” Source: Lederer, Richard. Anguished English. New York: Dell Publishing, 1987. Correct the following: -He was tall, dark, and he was handsome. -We like to swim, dancing, and to fish. -She was neither happy nor wanted to agree. -We were not only enjoying the game but also to dance. Recognize the standard use of verb forms. Recognize the standard use of pronouns. Recognize the standard formation and use of adverbs, adjectives, comparatives and superlatives, and plural and possessive forms of nouns. Recognize standard punctuation. Identify sentence fragments and run-on sentences (e.g., fused sentences, commas splices). Identify standard subject-verb agreement. Subjective form Subject of sentence— What’s wrong with “Kay and me are tired”? Subject within its clause Not “We wanted to vote for whomever was the best candidate,” but what? Subject complement (following linking verb) What’s wrong with “The candidate we want to win is her”? Objective form Object of preposition— What’s wrong with “Just between you and I, we have a problem”? Object of verb— Not “He wanted she to go with him,” but what? What’s wrong with the following? -A student can find their class by following this map. -My mother, along with all my brothers and sisters, are going to be there. -Anybody can enroll in this class if they want to. -Either my husband or my children is calling all the time. -My favorite book, in the basement with all of my other packed books, were ruined by the water damage. Most common errors: -Dependent clause fragments I wanted a new car. Because my old one was worn out. -Verbal phrase fragments I wanted a new car. Thinking it would get better gas mileage. -Noun phrases or clauses I wanted a new car. A sporty one with a spoiler and all the perks. Writing Tip: Read the sentences in reverse order. Most common errors: Using transitional conjunctions without semicolons -I wanted a new car, however, I didn’t want to pay that much. Using the pronoun “it” as a new subject without a semicolon. -I wanted a new car, it wasn’t out of greed, but necessity. Using a semicolon without a full sentence on both sides -I wanted a new job; however, not such a hard one. Conjunctions that don’t require semicolons: but, or, yet, so, for, and, nor A lot Their / they’re / there You’re / your Its / It’s Good / Bad Real / Really 0021-Prepare an organized, developed composition in edited English in response to instructions regarding content, purpose, and audience. On topic Unified Appropriate for audience and purpose Supported with concrete detail—e.g. narrative, description, comparison, illustration Edited for spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and effective sentence structure Best Writing Tips: Pre-write, remember 5paragraph structure, assume people will disagree, stick with what you know well, allow space for additions, and reread! Introduction Attention Getter Acknowledge reader Thesis—arguable, supportable, narrowed Body Three Paragraphs each with focused idea (topic sentence) that relates to thesis and solid, sensory support from examples, description, etc. Check paragraphs especially for development, unity, and coherence. Conclusion Summary Sense of Closure Argue whether or not your community should use tax dollars to fund a public transit system. Whichever side you choose, consider the reasons for the other side and give specific support.