tata bahasa inggris (1)

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TATA BAHASA INGGRIS
Susantiningrum, S.Pd.,SE.,MAB.
Dear Sir,
Owing to the bad weather last week, we were unable to complete the laying
of your lawn. I would be very pleased if you could let me know when it will be
convenient for us to return to finish the work.
Referring to your query about the price of shrubs.You shall have our
estimate for this by the end of the week.
Mr. Brown, our consultant, who you met some time ago, will be able to
meet you and I next week at a time to suit yourself to consider what herbaceous
plants will suit your soil.
We apologise for him not contacting your earlier, but he has unfortunately
been ill. He would be glad if you can give him some idea of your preference as
to colours in this border. Do you wish them to be different to each other or of
similar hues? If you want to colours only, would you like less of one plant or an
equal number of each type?
Everyone of the plants we sell have, of course, our usual guarantee.
Yours faithfully
Dear Sir,
Owing to the bad weather last week, we were unable to complete the laying
of your lawn. I should be very pleased if you could let me know when it will be
convenient for us to return to finish the work.
With reference to your query about the price of shrubs, you will have our
estimate for this by the end of the week.
Mr. Brown, our consultant, whom you met some time ago, will be able to
meet you and me next week at a time to suit you to consider what herbaceous
plants will suit your soil.
We apologise for his not contacting you earlier, but he has unfortunately been
ill. He would be glad if you could give him some ideas of your preference as to
colours in this border. Do you wish them to be different from one another or of
similar hues? If you want two colours only, would you like fewer of one plant or
an equal number for each type?
All of the plants we sell have, of course, our usual guarantee.
Yours faithfully,
1. SENTENCE
 Syarat gramatikal untuk kalimat bhs Inggris:
minimal: Subject + Verb Inf
 Kesalahan struktur biasanya pada bagian pembuka/penutup
surat. Exp:
- in reply to your letter of 8 May
- Looking forward to your early reply
Perbaikan
 Kalimat pertama tidak ada subjek dan verba. Seharusnya:
In reply to your letter of 8 May, I have pleasure in enclosing our
quotation
Perbaikan
 Kalimat kedua, terdapat verba: looking, tapi bukan Verb Inf.
Serta tanpa subject. Seharusnya:
I look forward to your early reply.
2.Kesesuaian antara Subject & Verb
 Subject tunggal  verb tunggal
 Subject jamak  verb jamak
Exp:
Details of the new contract is to be found overleaf.
Details  jamak; is  tunggal.
Details of the new contract are to be found overleaf.
EXERCISE:
Each the typist are to have her own type of stationery.
2. This is the one of papers that is to be enclosed.
3. The committee has decided to increase the membership
fee.
1.
The answers:
Each the typist is to have her own type of stationery.
2. This is the one of papers that are to be enclosed.
3. The committee were unable to agree.
1.
note:
each, every, either, neither masing-masing berbentuk
tunggal.
2. Kata ganti “that” mengacu ke “papers” yang bentuknya
jamak. Sehingga verb yang digunakan juga jamak.
3. Kata benda kolektif biasanya bersifat tunggal. Kecuali jika
masing-masing individu dalam kelompoknya bertindak
secara terpisah.
1.
3. Kesesuaian antara Adj & Kata
benda
Adj jamak  kata benda jamak;
Adj tunggal  kata benda tunggal.
Exp:
He could not agree with these sort of proposals.
Seharusnya:
He could not agree with this sort of proposals.
Atau
He could not agree with these sorts of proposals
4. Subject dan Object
You and I will meet our consultant, Mr. Brown, next week.
2. Mr. Brown will meet you and I next week.
1.
Kalimat no 1 benar, tetapi kalimat no 2 salah. Mengapa?
 Kalimat pertama “you and I” sebagai subjek.
 Kalimat kedua “you and I” sebagai objek, seharusnya “you and
me”.
Exercise:
Mr. Brown will meet I next week.
5. Gerund
Bentuk gerund sama dengan keterangan (partisipel); namun
berfungsi sebagai kata benda.
Exp.:
We apologise for him not contacting you earlier.
Seharusnya:
We apologise for his not contacting you earlier.
6. Kata Ganti
Menggunakan kata ganti harus diperhatikan konsistensinya.
Exercise:
One should always read a hire-purchase agreement carefully
before he signs it.
Seharusnya:
One should always read a hire-purchase agreement carefully
before one signs it.
7. Kata Ganti Relatif
 Who/whom dipakai hanya untuk mengacu ke manusia.
 Which mengacu ke benda serta mahluk lainnya.
 That dapat mengacu ke manusia, benda atau mahluk lainnya.
Exp:
1. This is the boy, who told me the news.
2. The play, which was directed by Peter Hall, is excellent
3. This is the play that Oscar Wide wrote.
8. Shall - Will
Pemakaian kedua kata tersebut mengacu kaidah sbb:
 Dalam pernyataan bermakna futura:
Untuk “I” dan “we” digunakan “shall”
Untuk “you, he, she, it dan they” digunakan “will”.
 Untuk menyatakan sikap penentu atau rencana.
Merupakan kebalikan dari kaidah pertama, yaitu:
Untuk “I” dan “we” digunakan “will”
Untuk “you, he, she, it dan they” digunakan “will”.
Exp: 1. I shall be glad if you will call on me tomorrow
2. I will pass the examination however many times I have to
retake it.
9. Should - Would
Kaidah yang digunakan:
1. Dalam pernyataan ketidakpastian atau keraguan; atau
apabila tindakan yang satu merupakan kondisi mutlak untuk
tindakan lain.
2. Apabila kaidah ditukar, should – would mengandung makna
sesal; petunjuk halus bahwa peristiwanya kemungkinan
besar tidak akan terjadi; disamping itu, pemakaiannya
menyampaikan suatu keharusan atau rasa tanggungjawab.
Contoh kaidah 1; Bandingkan :
1. I should be grateful if you would visit me.
2. I should be grateful if you will visit me.
Contoh Kaidah 2;
1. I would come but I am unable to leave the children.
2. He should visit his relatives but he does not wish to see them
NOTE:
Jangan kacaukan makna would dengan could berikut:
I should be grateful if you would ………berarti jika anda
bersedia.
I should be grateful if you could ………berarti jika anda
sanggup.
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