Poems and Prose EDI - Pacoima Charter School

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The Major Differences
Between Poems and
Prose
CCSS 4RL.5
Explain major differences between poems,
drama, and prose, and refer to the
structural elements of poems (e.g. verse,
rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of
characters, settings descriptions, dialogue,
stage directions) when writing or speaking
about a text.
Learning Objective
• Today we will learn the elements of and
explain the difference between, poems and
prose.
• What are we going to explain the difference
between?
• (partner share)
Have you ever read a Dr. Suess story?
• Share with your partner a Dr. Suess story that
you remember.
• Most Dr. Suess stories are an example of
rhyming poetry. Click on this link
• Read some Dr. Suess
Poetry’s Purpose
• Poetry is a form of
writing that is
meant to
1. entertain
2. describe
3. inform
4. persuade
Elements of Poetry
•What is poetry?
•Poetry is not prose. Prose is the ordinary language
people use in speaking or writing.
•Poetry is a form of literary expression that captures
intense experiences or creative perceptions of the
world in a musical language.
•Basically, if prose is like talking, poetry is like singing.
•By looking at the set up of a poem, you can see the
difference between prose and poetry.
Distinguishing Characteristics of Poetry
• Prose has a narrator, on the other hand,
poetry has a speaker.
– A speaker, or voice, talks to the reader. The
speaker is not necessarily the poet. It can also be
a fictional person, an animal or even a thing
Green Eggs and Ham
Do you like green eggs and ham? I would not like them here or
I do not like them, Sam-I-am.
there.
I do not like green eggs and ham! I would not like them anywhere.
Would you like them here or
I do so like green eggs and ham!
there?
Thank you! Thank you,
Sam-I-am!
Poetry is written in lines and stanzas
• A line is just one line of writing.
• A stanza is a group of lines separated by a
space from another group of lines.
• Read the following slide to understand the
difference between lines and stanzas.
I Love To Write Poems (title)
•
•
•
•
•
(First Stanza)
I love to write Day and night
What would my heart do
But cry, sigh and be blue
If I could not write
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
(Second Stanza)
Writing feels good
And I know it should
Who could have knew
That what I do
Is write, write, writeUnknown Author
A line in the
poem
A stanza
Figures of Speech
• A figure of speech is a word or expression that is not
meant to be read literally.
• BOTH PROSE AND POETRY USE FIGURES OF
SPEECH
• A simile is a figure of speech using a word such as like
or as to compare seemingly unlike things.
Example
Does it stink like rotten meat?
from “Harlem” by Langston Hughes
Figures of Speech
• A metaphor also compares seemingly unlike
things, but does not use like or as.
You might be a doorknob!
Or three baked potatoes!
You might be a bag full of
hard green tomatoes.
(Happy Birthday by Dr. Suess)
• Personification attributes human like
characteristics to an animal, object, or idea.
Example
A Spider sewed at Night
from “A Spider sewed at Night” by Emily Dickinson
Figures of Speech
• Hyperbole – a figure of speech in which
great exaggeration is used for emphasis or
humorous effect.
Example
“You’ve asked me a million times!”
• Imagery is descriptive language that applies
to the senses – sight, sound, touch, taste, or
smell. Some images appeal to more than one
sense.
Sound Devices
• Alliteration is the repetition of consonant
sounds at the beginning of words.
• Assonance is the repetition of vowel sounds
within a line of poetry.
• Onomatopoeia is the use of a word or phrase,
such as “hiss” or “buzz” that imitates or
suggests the sound of what it describes.
BOTH POETRY AND PROSE USE SOUND DEVICES
Example of Sound Devices
• Betty Botter by Mother Goose
• Betty Botter bought some butter, but, she said, the
butter’s bitter; if I put it in my batter it will make my
batter bitter, but a bit of better butter will make my
batter better.
• So she bought a bit of butter better than her bitter
butter, and she put it in her batter and the batter was
not bitter. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of
better butter.
• THIS IS ALLITERATION
Example of Sound Devices
• Onomatopoeia (by Eve Merriam)
• The rusty spigot
sputters,
utters
a splutter,
spatters a smattering of drops,
gashes wider;
slash
splatters
scatters
spurts
finally stops sputtering
and plash!
gushes rushes splashes
clear water dashes.
Poems break grammar rules
The rusty spigot
sputters,
utters
a splutter
Each line does
not have to
begin with a
capital letter or
be a complete
sentence.
THIS MAKES
POEMS VERY
DIFFERENT
FROM PROSE.
Rhyme
• Rhyme is the repetition of the same stressed vowel
sound and any succeeding sounds in two or more
words.
• Internal rhyme occurs within a line of poetry.
• End rhyme occurs at the end of lines.
• Rhyme scheme is the pattern of end rhymes that
may be designated by assigning a different letter of
the alphabet to each new rhyme
BOTH POEMS AND PROSE CAN USE RHYME
BUT IT IS MOST CLOSLEY CONNECTED TO POEMS
Example
“All mine!" Yertle cried. "Oh, the
things I now rule!
I'm king of a cow! And I'm king of a
mule!
I'm king of a house! And what's more,
beyond that,
I'm king of a blueberry bush and cat!
I'm Yertle the Turtle! Oh, marvelous
me!
For I am the ruler of all that I see!”
A
A
B
B
C
C
A couplet
• In poetry, a couplet is a pair of lines. Typically,
they rhyme and have the same meter. They make
up a unit or complete thought.
“All mine!" Yertle cried. "Oh, the
things I now rule!
I'm king of a cow! And I'm king of a
mule!
Rhythm and Meter
• Rhythm is the pattern of sound created
by the arrangement of stressed and
unstressed syllables in a line.
• Meter is a regular pattern of stressed
and unstressed syllables which sets the
overall rhythm of certain poems.
Listen to the rhythm in this Shel
Silverstein poem
• I Don’t Know
•
•
•
•
•
•
I don’t know how anythings’ done.
Does the earth turn or is it the sun?
Is electricity made by a kite?
Are star twinkles just the reflection of light?
How thunder is made and how engines run
I don’t know how anything’s done
READ IT AGAIN AND CLAP YOUR HANDS WITH THE RHYTHM.
Elements of Poetry: Tone and Mood
Although many times we use the words mood and tone
interchangeably, they do not necessarily mean the same
thing.
Mood – the feeling or atmosphere that a poet creates. Mood
can suggest an emotion (ex. “excited”) or the quality of a
setting (ex. “calm”, “somber”) In a poem, mood can be
established through word choice, line length, rhythm, etc.
Tone – a reflection of the poet’s attitude toward the subject
of a poem. Tone can be serious, sarcastic, humorous, etc.
Forms of Poetry
• Poetry can take several
forms. These are:
Forms of Poetry
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Shape Poems
Acrostic Poems
Ballads
Lyrical Poems
Haikus
Narrative Poems
Free Verse
Blank Verse
Shape Poem
Narrative Poetry
• Narrative poetry is verse that tells a story.
• Two of the major examples of narrative poetry
include:
– Ballads – a song or poem that tells a story.
Folk ballads, which typically tell of an
exciting or dramatic event, were composed by
an anonymous singer or author and passed
on by word of mouth for generations before
written down. Literary ballads are written in
imitation of folk ballads, but usually given an
author.
– Click on this link to hear the folk ballad
“Casey Jones”
Dramatic Poetry
• Dramatic poetry is poetry in which one or more
characters speak.
– Each speaker always addresses a specific listener.
– This listener may be silent (but identifiable), or the
listener may be another character who speaks in
reply.
– Usually the conflict that the speaker is involved
with is either an intense or emotional.
Haikus
• The traditional Japanese haiku is an unrhymed poem that
contains exactly 17 syllables, arranged in 3 lines of 5, 7, 5
syllables each.
• However, when poems written in Japanese are translated into
another language, this pattern is often lost.
• The purpose of a haiku is to capture a flash of insight that
occurs during a solitary observation of nature.
The moon is a week old A dandelion to blow
Scattering star seed.
(Ruby Lytle)
Free Verse
• Free verse is poetry that has no fixed pattern of
meter, rhyme, line length, or stanza arrangement.
• When writing free verse, a poet is free to vary
the poetic elements to emphasize an idea or
create a tone.
• In writing free verse, a poet may choose to use
repetition or similar grammatical structures to
emphasize and unify the ideas in the poem.
Free Verse
“Tell Me” by Shel Silverstein
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Tell me I’m clever,
Tell me I’m kind,
Tell me I’m talented,
Tell me I’m cute,
Tell me I’m sensitive,
Graceful and wise,
Tell me I’m perfect,
But tell me the truth
Free Verse
• While the majority of popular poetry today is written
as free verse, the style itself is not new. Walt
Whitman, writing in the 1800’s, created free verse
poetry based on forms found in the King James Bible.
• Modern free verse is concerned with the creation of a
brief, ideal image, not the refined ordered (and
artificial, according to some critics) patterns that other
forms of poetry encompass.
• Follow this link to an example of Free Verse
Prose’s Purpose
• Prose is a form of writing that
is meant to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
inform
entertain
persuade
describe
Text Features of Prose
• There are several features of
prose that make it unique from
other forms of writing. These
are:
Text Features of Prose
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Written using paragraphs
Contains dialogue
Can be either fiction or nonfiction
Can have headings and/or subheadings
Can be complemented by graphics
(charts, photos)
Forms of Prose
• Prose can take several
forms. These are:
Forms of Prose
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Biography
Autobiography
Essay
Novel
Short Story
Click on links to see examples online.
6. Novella (short
story)
7. Article
8. Fable / Folktale
9. Folktale
A narrator is a person
• Who is telling the story
To Sum it up!
Poems have:
• Rythmn /rhyme schemes
• Meter
• Verses
• Stanzas
• Lines
• Breaks grammar rules
• Voice/speaker
• Mood
• couplets
Prose has:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Characters
Narration
Paragraph
Follows grammar rules
Chapters
Headings/titles/subtitles
Point of view
Setting
Plot
Voice
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