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Strategically Manage and Use Intellectual Properties to
Increase Companies’ Competitiveness
Presented by: Ningling Wang
May 7, 2014, Beijing
策略性管理利用知识产权为公司提升竞争力
演讲人:王宁玲
2014年5月7日,北京
Proprietary to FHFGD © 2014 Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, LLP
DISCLAIMER
免责声明

These materials are public information and have been prepared solely for educational
purposes to contribute to the understanding of American intellectual property law. These
materials reflect only the personal views of the author and are not individualized legal advice.
It is understood that each case is fact-specific, and that the appropriate solution in any case
will vary. Therefore, these materials may or may not be relevant to any particular situation.
Thus, the author and FINNEGAN cannot be bound either philosophically or as
representatives of their various present and future clients to the comments expressed in
these materials. The presentation of these materials does not establish any form of
attorney-client relationship with the author or FINNEGAN. While every attempt was made to
insure that these materials are accurate, errors or omissions may be contained therein, for
which any liability is disclaimed.

本资料为公开信息,仅供教育之目的,旨在增进对美国知识产权法的理解。
本资料仅代表作者的个人观点,并不构成对具体案件出具的法律意见,也不
代表飞翰律师事务所的观点。众所周知,每个案件都有其独特的案件事实,
因此不同案件的适当解决方法也各不相同。因此,本资料可能与任何特定情
形相关,也可能无关。据此,作者和飞翰律师事务所对其现在或将来的客户
无需就本资料中所出具的任何评论意见承担任何法律责任。本资料的呈递行
为不构成与飞翰或作者的任何形式的律师-委托人关系。尽管作者已尽力确保
本资料的准确性,但本资料中仍可能含有错误或疏漏之处,对此作者将概不
承担任何责任。
2
Outline
大纲
▪
▪
▪
Importance of IP to innovative companies
Strategically manage and use IP
IP due diligence
▪
▪
▪
知识产权对创新公司的重要性
策略性管理利用知识产权
知识产权的尽职调查
3
Primarily Four Types of IP
知识产权的四种主要类型
▪
▪
▪
▪
Patents
Copyrights
Trademarks
Trade Secrets
▪
▪
▪
▪
专利
版权
商标
商业秘密
4
Intellectual Property Fundamentals
知识产权基本要素
DOING BUSINESS
商务活动
PRIVATE
私人
IDEAS
思想观念
TRADE
SECRETS
商业秘密
IDEAS
思想观念
Patents
Copyrights
Trademarks
专利
版权
商标
PUBLIC
公众
5
Intellectual Property: Forms of Protection
知识产权:保护方式
 What do they have in common?
– They protect an intangible work product.
– They give a measure of exclusivity.
– They are all territorial grants.
– They can be enforced in court.
 它们之间有什么共同点?
– 保护无形产品
– 授予独占性
– 具有地域性
– 可由法院强制执行
6
Patent Value
专利的价值
 Patent = MARKETING tools
– Patents’ principal value is based upon their impact
on the market for relevant goods and services
 专利 = 营销工具
– 专利的主要价值在于其对相关产品和服务
市场的影响
7
Apple Litigations
苹果诉讼
8
Value of Patents
专利的价值
 Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co. (Fed. Cir. 1986)
– patent infringement suit brought in district court of Massachusetts
– awarded a $910 million damage to Polaroid
– an injunction against Kodak for infringing seven instant-photography
patents
– the litigation ultimately wiped out Kodak’s instant camera products
 Polaroid Corp. 诉 Eastman Kodak Co. 案(联邦巡回上诉法院,
1986年)
–
–
–
–
在马萨诸塞州地方法院提起专利侵权诉讼
判决向Polaroid 支付9.1亿美元损害赔偿
因侵犯七项即时成像专利,向Kodak发布禁止令
诉讼最终淘汰了Kodak的即时成像产品
9
Value of Patents
专利的价值
• Centocor Ortho Biotech, Inc. v. Abbott Labs. (Fed. Cir. 2011)
o E.D. Tex. 2009 decision - Abbott’s drug Humira infringes Centocor’s
patent (U.S. Patent No. 7,070,775); Centocor was awarded $1.67
billion in damages
o Federal Circuit 2011 decision – Reversed;the ’775 patent is invalid
• Centocor Ortho Biotech, Inc. 诉 Abbott Labs.案(联邦巡回上诉法
院,2011年)
o 2009年德州东区联邦地方法院的决定 - Abbot的药物阿达木单抗侵犯
Centocor的专利 (美国专利号: 7,070,775), Centocor为此获得了
16.7亿美元的损害赔偿金
o 2011年联邦巡回上诉法院的决定 - 推翻一审决定; 775号专利无效
10
Value of Other IPs
其它知识产权的价值




Trademark
Trade secret
Copyright
Design patent




商标
商业秘密
版权
外观设计专利
11
Commercial Considerations
商业方面的考虑因素
 Innovation
– Worth protecting
– Likelihood of Commercialization
– Employee Relations
– Investment Factor
– Defensive Portfolio
 创新
– 值得保护
– 商业化的可能性
– 员工关系
– 投资者因素
– 防御性专利组合
12
Patents v. Trade Secrets
专利与商业秘密
Patents
专利
Trade Secrets
商业秘密
How obtained
如何获取
USPTO application and
examination
向美国专利商标局申请并通
过审核
Private efforts
个人工作
Subject matter
主题
Limited subject matter
有限主题
Any subject matter
任意主题
Requirements
要求
Must be novel and non-obvious Not generally known or readily
ascertainable
必须新颖且并不显而易见
并不广为人知或容易确定
Public Disclosure
公开披露
Yes
需要
No
不需要
Term of protection and
royalties
保护和使用费期限
Limited
有限
Potentially unlimited
可能无限
Protection from
independent discovery
针对独立发掘的保护
Yes
有
No
没有
Costs
成本
Large upfront costs
前期成本较高
Low upfront costs, continued efforts required
前期成本较低,需要持续工作
13
Prevent IP Leakage
防止知识产权泄露
• Trade Secrets
– Employees
– Business
partners
• 商业秘密
• 雇员
• 商业合作伙伴
14
Why Are U.S. Patents Valuable for
Your Company’s Business?
为什么美国专利会
对你们公司业务有价值?
15
Importance of U.S. Patents
美国专利的重要性
Licensing
Sale
Defensive
Use
Attract
Investment
US
Patents
Partnership
Offensive
Use
Government
awards
16
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
专利合作条约
17
Foreign Filing Options
申请国外专利的渠道
 Home country filing and follow-on Paris Convention based direct foreign
filings
 PCT filing with or without home country filing
 Direct filing into non-Paris Convention and non-PCT countries
 在本国递交申请,然后根据巴黎公约在外国直接递交申请
 PCT申请(无论是否在本国递交过申请)
 直接在非巴黎公约和非PCT国家递交申请
18
Basic Facts about PCT
关于PCT的一些基本事实
 WIPO (World Intellectual Property Organization) based in Geneva,
Switzerland
 位于瑞士日内瓦的WIPO (国际知识产权组织)
19
Basic Facts about PCT
关于PCT的一些基本事实
 Concluded in 1970; entering into force and becoming operational in 1978;
amended in 1979; modified in 1984 and 2001
 Alternative to the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property
 145 contracting States as of May 2012* (will enter into force in Brunei
Darussalam, the 145th contracting state, on July 24, 2012)
 1970年缔约;1978年生效;1979年修订;1984年及2001年修改
 作为保护工业产权巴黎公约的替代
 截止2012年5月共145个缔约国* (将于2012年7月24日在第145个
缔约国文莱生效)
20
* http://www.wipo.int/pct/guide/en/gdvol1/annexes/annexa/ax_a.pdf
What is the PCT?
什么是PCT ?
The PCT provides a simple
international patent application
procedure:
PCT提供了一种简单的国际专利
申请的程序 :
– starting with a single patent
application,
–仅需提交一份专利申请
– resulting in patents in a number of
countries, and
–即可以在多个国家获得专利,
– making it more efficient and
economical.
–在专利申请中,提高效率、降
低费用。
21
What is the PCT?
什么是PCT ?
 The PCT system is a patent “filing” system, not a patent “granting”
system. There is no “PCT patent”
 The decision on granting patents is taken exclusively by national or
regional Offices in the national phase
 Not available for design and plant inventions
 PCT系统是一个专利申请“递交”系统,而不是一个专利“授
予”系统。不存在“PCT专利”一说
 授予专利的决定由国家或地区专利局在国家阶段作出
 不适用于设计和植物发明
22
Why use the PCT?
为什么使用 PCT ?
Worldwide system for simplified filing and
processing of patent applications
– One application in one language
– Searched by the International
Searching Authority
– Transmitted to Geneva
– Distributed to the countries in which
protection is sought
一个简化专利申请提交和处理的国际
体系
– 以一种语言、提交一份申请
– 由国际检索单位进行检索
– 传送至日内瓦
– 分发至寻求专利保护的各个国
家
In contrast, filing national applications
individually is more complicated
because of
– Different languages,
– Different rules,
– In multiple countries at the same time,
– Incurring multiple, duplicate expenses.
相比之下,单独提交国家申请则较为
复杂,原因在于:
– 语言不同
– 规则不同
– 同时在多个国家申请
– 多项、重复缴费
23
Why use the PCT?
为什么使用 PCT ?
The PCT provides a system to
PCT提供了一个控制申请费用的
control costs
机制
– Allows the applicant to delay
– 允许申请人推迟缴纳与实
incurring costs associated with
现专利申请国际化相关的
internationalizing a patent
费用
application
– Reduces the overall cost of the
– 降低专利申请的总费用
filings
– Controls the costs of
– 控制后续国家阶段申请的
subsequent national stage
费用
filings
24
Why use the PCT?
为什么使用 PCT?
It gives the Applicant useful
information about whether or not to
proceed to the National Stage
申请人可以根据PCT过程中获得的
信息决定是否进入国家阶段
The International Search Report and
Written Opinion are used to make
patenting decisions in each country
可以根据国际检索报告和书面意见
在各个国家申请时做出专利决策
Search information about the
patentability of the invention is valuable
in deciding whether or not to spend the
additional time and effort prosecuting
national stage applications
有关发明可专利性的检索信息对申
请人作出是否花费更多的时间和精
力进入国家阶段的决定至关重要
25
Patent Filings under PCT in 2013
2013年递交的PCT专利申请
Rank
排名
1
2
3
4




Country
国家
United States
美国
Japan
日本
China
中国
Germany
德国
Number of Patents
专利申请数
57,239
43,918
21,516
17,927
U.S. filings increased 10.8% from 2012.
China filings increased 15.6% from 2012.
美国申请比2012年增加了10.8%。
中国申请比2012年增加了15.6%。
26
Patent Filings under PCT in 2011 and 2013
2011年和2013年递交的PCT专利申请

Two Chinese companies ranked in top 10 for applicants filing under PCT in
2011
# 1 = ZTE Corporation
# 3 = Huawei Technologies Limited



2011年两家中国企业的PCT申请数量位居前十
第一位 = 中兴通讯股份有限公司
第三位 = 华为技术有限公司



Two Chinese companies ranked in top 10 for applicants filing under PCT in
2013
# 2 = ZTE Corporation
# 3 = Huawei Technologies Limited



2013年两家中国企业的PCT申请数量位居前十
第二位 = 中兴通讯股份有限公司
第三位 = 华为技术有限公司


27
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公开
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 0: File application locally. Typically a national patent application in
the home country of the applicant
 第0个月:递交本地申请。通常是在申请人的祖国递交的国内
专利申请
28
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公开
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 12: Due date for filing PCT application in order to claim benefit of
priority to the national application
– An application is filed in a member country “Receiving Office (RO),” designating an
International Searching Authority
 第12个月: 请求国家申请优先权的最后期限
– 申请人在一个成员国“受理局”提交一份专利申请,指定一个国际检索单位29
Where to File PCT Application
在哪里递交PCT申请
 Typically the RO can be the same national patent Office as that for the national
application
– If there are more than one applicants, any Office of or acting for a contracting State of which at
least one of the applicants is a resident or national can be the RO
 The RO can also be the International Bureau (RO/IB)
 Residents or nationals of a State which is also party to one of the regional patent
systems can also file in a regional Office such as the European Patent Office
 通常受理局可以是之前接受国内申请的同一国家专利局
– 若有多个申请人,则任何申请人所属国家的专利局或代表该国的专利局都可以作
为受理局
 受理局也可以是国际局
 若申请人为某一区域性专利系统成员国的居民或国民,则也可以在该
区域性专利局(例如欧洲专利局)递交申请
30
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公开
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 16: International Search Authority (ISA) issues International
Search Report (ISR) on state of the art (prior art documents and their
relevance) and initial Written Opinion (WO) on patentability
 第16个月:国际检索单位出具关于技术现状(在先技术文献
及其相关性)的国际检索报告和关于可专利性的初步书面意
见
31
International Search Report (ISR)
国际检索报告 (ISR)
32
Written Opinion (WO) of the
国际检索单位的书面意见(WO)
International Searching Authority
33
International Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter I) (if no
international preliminary examination
is requested)
可专利性的国际初步报告
(第一章)(若申请人没有
请求国际初步审查)
34
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公开
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 18: International Bureau publishes the application, disclosing to the
world in a standardized form the content of the application
 第18个月:国际局公开申请,以标准格式向世人披露申请内容
35
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公布
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 19: Applicant optionally requests for Supplementary International Search
– Conducted by another search authorities
– Not offered by all search authorities
 第19个月: 发明人可选择请求补充国际检索
– 由另一检索单位进行
– 并非所有检索单位都提供这一服务
36
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公布
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 22: Due date for applicants to request an additional patentability analysis
on basis of amended application (3 months from the date of transmittal of ISR
and WO, or 22 months from the priority date, whichever expires later)
 第22个月:申请人基于修订的申请请求额外的可专利性分析的最后
期限(国际检索报告和书面意见发出后3个月或从最早的优先权日
算起22个月,以较晚者为准)
37
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公布
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 28: Additional patentability analysis for Applicant to make decision
whether to enter national phase
 第28个月:额外的可专利性分析,以助于申请人决定是否进
入国家阶段
38
Typical PCT Timeline
典型的PCT申请时间线
International
Search Report and
Written Opinion
国际检索报告和
书面意见
File application locally
(priority application)
递交本地申请
(优先权申请)
0
12
File PCT
application
递交PCT申请
16
(Optional) Request for
Supplementary
International Search
(可选)请求补充
国际检索
18
19
International
publication
国际公布
(Optional) International
Preliminary Report on
Patentability (Chapter II)
(可选)可专利性的国际
初步报告(第二章)
28
22
(Optional)
File Demand for
Preliminary Examination
(可选)请求初步审查
30
Enter national
phase
进入国家阶段
 Month 30: Due date for filing national phase applications in various
designated States that Applicant wants to pursue protection
 第30个月:申请人在各指定国家递交国家阶段申请的截止日
39
Alternative Filing Strategy
其它递交策略
 Alternative to the typical route of filing national (or regional)
application followed by a PCT application, Applicant can also file
PCT application directly
 除了上述先递交国内(或区域)申请然后递交PCT申请
的方式之外,申请人还可以直接递交PCT申请
40
Advantages Of Filing National Application First
先递交国内申请的优点
 Deferring PCT filing costs by one year
 Patent term in most countries begins with filing date (i.e. PCT filing date),
thereby ending term one year later than with PCT first filing
 More time to evaluate merits of invention before incurring foreign filing
expenses
 将PCT申请的费用推迟一年
 在大多数国家,专利有效期从递交日(及PCT递交日)开始算起,
从而可以将专利失效日期推后一年
 在产生任何国外申请费用之前可以有更多时间评估发明价值
41
Advantages Of Filing National Application First
先递交国内申请的优点
 Reports on search and examination of national application may be available
before PCT filing
 Application can be redrafted before PCT filing to include improvements and
discovered features and examples
 Additional countries may have joined PCT during priority year
 在PCT申请之前就有可能拿到国内申请的检索和审查报告
 有可能在PCT申请之前重新撰写申请,以加入各种改进以及较晚
发现的特点和实施例
 在递交国内申请之后有可能有更多国家加入PCT
42
Advantages Of Filing PCT Application First
先递交PCT申请的优点
 All filings for PCT countries done at one time
 ISR and WO received earlier (within 9 months from the filing
date), i.e.
– before direct Paris Convention filings in non-PCT countries
 在所有PCT国家的申请同时完成
 较早收到国际检索报告和书面意见(在申请递交日之
后9个月以内), 即
– 在向非PCT国家通过巴黎公约递交申请之前
43
U.S. Patent Procurement
美国专利申办
44
What can be patented in the U.S.?
在美国什么是可专利的?
 Anything under the sun that is made by man
 But not:
– Abstract ideas (e.g., mathematical algorithms)
– Natural phenomena
– Laws of nature
 所有太阳照耀之下的人造物
 但不包括:
– 抽象概念 (例如, 数学算法)
– 自然现象
– 自然法则
45
What does a U.S. Patent Look Like
一份美国专利看起来是怎样的
 Abstract
– Brief description of the
invention
– Aids patent searchers
 摘要
– 发明简述
– 辅助发明检索者
46
What does a U.S. Patent Look Like
一份美国专利看起来是怎样的
 Drawings
– Aids technical description
 附图
– 辅助技术描述
47
What does a U.S. Patent Look Like
一份美国专利看起来是怎样的
 Background
 Detailed
Description
 背景技术
 详细描述
48
What does a U.S. Patent Look Like
一份美国专利看起来是怎样的
• Claims, claims, claims!
– Boundary of what you own
• 权利要求,权利要求,
权利要求!
– 限定你所拥有的权利
49
Requirements for a U.S. Patent – Utility
美国专利要求-实用
 To be patentable, an invention must be “useful”
 Invention must perform its designated function
 Need not be superior to existing products nor demonstrate
commercial viability
 要想获得专利,一项发明必须是“有用的”
 发明必须完成其指定功能
 但是不需要优于已有产品,也不需要证明商业可行性
50
Requirements for a U.S. Patent – Novelty
美国专利要求-新颖性
 Invention must be “new”
– Not already in public use or known by others
– “New” at time of application filing
 If reference shows all aspects of a claim, it is “anticipatory”
 发明必须是“新的”
– 没有已经公开使用或被别人知晓
– “新”是相对于申请递交时间而言
 若参考文献给出了一项权利要求的所有方面,则其为
“预见性的”
51
Requirements for a U.S. Patent – Non-Obviousness
美国专利要求-非显而易见性
 Not patentable if average person could combine already known
concepts or if the improvement is obvious
– Standard for knowledge is “one of skill in the art”
 若一般人能够通过合并已知概念得到某一发明,或者
该发明相对于在先技术的改进是显而易见的,则该发
明不可专利
– 标准是“熟练的技术人员”
52
Typical Examination Process
典型审查流程
Second or final
Office Action
二次或最终审查意
见书
Missing parts
Office Action
Allow
Patent issues
审查意见书
批准
专利颁发
文件不齐
File
application
Submission of
Declaration
递交申请
补交发明人誓
词
Response
Response
Patent expires
答辩
答辩
专利失效
Interview with Examiner
(in person or telephonic)
付费
与审查委员面谈或电话
讨论
Twenty years
二十年
53
Typical Examination Process
典型审查流程
Second or final
Office Action
二次或最终审查意
见书
Office Action
Missing parts
Advisory
Action
审查意见书
文件不齐
File
application
Submission of
Declaration
递交申请
补交发明人誓
词
Appeal
上诉
建议意见
Response
Response
答辩
答辩
Interview with Examiner
(in person or telephonic)
Request for Continued
Examination (RCE)
继续审查请求
与审查委员面谈或电话
讨论
54
Recent Hot Deals
最近热门交易
 Google purchased Motorola Mobility
– 24500 patents
– $12.5 billions
– About $510,000 per patent
 Facebook purchased patents from Microsoft
– 650 patents
– $ 0.55 billions
– about $850,000 per patent

谷歌购买摩托罗拉移动
– 24500件专利
– 125亿美金
– 每件专利大约51万美金

脸谱购买微软的专利
– 650件专利
– 5.5亿美金
– 每件专利大约85万美金
55
Recent Hot Deals
最近热门交易
 Microsoft purchased patents from AOL
– 800 patents
– $1.056 billions
– About $1,320,000 per patent
 Nortel Auction (Apple, Microsoft, Sony, RIM etc.)
– 6000 patents
– $ 4.5 billions
– about $750,000 per patent
 微软购买美国在线的专利
– 800件专利
– 10.56亿美金
– 每件专利大约132万美金

北电拍卖 (苹果, 微软, 索尼, RIM 等)
– 6000件专利
– 45亿美金
– 每件专利大约75万美金
56
What is an IP Due Diligence?
什么是知识产权尽职调查?
 IP Due Diligence is a legal exercise
– Define, examine, and analyze an IP portfolio
– To reveal the value/potential problems of the IP assets
 Ownership rights surrounding the IP
 Strength, scope, and enforceability of the IP
 Future potential to be derived from the IP
 尽职调查是一项法律程序
– 明确、审查并分析知识产权组合
– 使知识产权资产的价值/潜在问题明朗化
 知识产权的所有权
 知识产权的强度、范围及可执行性
 知识产权的未来可开发潜力
57
What is an IP Due Diligence?
什么是知识产权尽职调查?
 Suitor—the party who is analyzing the IP of another
 Target—the party who is defending its IP
 收购方 – 分析对方知识产权的一方
 被收购方(目标) – 防卫自身知识产权的一方
58
Why Conduct IP Due Diligence?
为何要进行知识产权尽职调查?
 IP is often the single most valuable asset of a company
– Percentage of intangible assets
 3M: 75.6%
 Johnson & Johnson: 87.9%
 Merck: 93.5%
 Microsoft: 95.2%
 知识产权经常是公司最有价值的资产
- 无形资产占公司总值的百分比
 3M: 75.6%
 强生: 87.9%
 默克: 93.5%
 微软: 95.2%
59
Why Conduct IP Due Diligence?
为何要进行知识产权尽职调查?
 IP is increasingly important in today’s corporate transactions
involving technology
– IP protects R&D, which is expensive
– The deals are bigger
– IP is more critical to the deals
 在当今涉及技术的公司交易中,知识产权的重要性日渐凸显。
– 知识产权保护耗资巨大的研发活动
– 交易规模更大
– 知识产权对交易致关重要
60
Scope of Due Diligence Varies
尽职调查的范围不同
 Breadth and depth of the analysis is proportional to the
importance of the IP and its impact on the value of the
transaction
– “IP” can take many forms
 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, trade secrets
 分析的广度与深度同知识产权的重要性及其对交易的影响力成正比
- “知识产权” 可以有多种形式
 专利、版权、商标、商业秘密
61
Scope of Due Diligence Varies
尽职调查的范围不同
– “Transactions” can take many forms
 Mergers, licenses, divestments, venture capital
investments, collaborative research projects, etc.
– “Value” can take many forms
 Exclusivity, cash, royalties, cross-licenses, access to
funding or new technology, improved market position,
etc.
― “交易” 可以有多种形式
 合并、许可、业务剥离、风险投资、合作研究项目等
― “价值” 可以有多种形式
 专有权、现金、特许使用费、交叉许可、基金和新技术使用权、
提高的市场地位等
62
Challenge of IP Due Diligence Investigations
知识产权尽职调查的挑战






Often the Suitor and the Target have
already reached a tentative deal
Deadlines are tight
Attorneys need to conduct an impartial,
objective investigation and advise the client
on matters that could impact the deal, both
in terms of price and structure
– But the attorneys must recognize that
the Suitor may not be receptive if much
of the deal is set in place
通常收购方与被收购方已经达成了临时协议
期限很紧
律师需进行公正客观的调查,并将可能影响
交易的事项告知委托人,包括交易的价格和
架构
– 但律师必须认识到,如果交易的大部分
已经确定 ,则收购者可能不愿接受
63
Issues for Evaluation of Target’s IP
评估被收购方知识产权时应考虑的问题
 For patents and potential product of interest,
consider issues of Inventorship/Ownership
– Failure to acquire title to key IP
– Failure to acquire exclusive title to key IP (co-owners,
joint ventures, liens, etc.)
– Failure to acquire rights (e.g. licenses) necessary to
operate
 对于被收购方的专利及潜在产品, 应考虑发明人资格/所有权问题
– 没有获得重要知识产权的所有权
– 没有获得重要知识产权的专有权(共有所有人、 合资企业、 留置
权等)
– 没有获得必须的使用权(如许可)
64
IP Due Diligence – Ownership Issue
知识产权尽职调查-所有权问题
 Contracts that Can Impact Ownership
– Assignments
– Licenses
– Security interests
– Employment agreements, especially inventors and other
technical personnel
– Consultant/contractor agreements
– Joint venture agreement
– Settlement agreements
 可能影响所有权的合同
– 转让
– 许可
– 担保权益
– 聘用协议,特别是发明人和其它技术人员的聘用协议
– 顾问/承包商协议
– 合资企业协议
– 和解协议
65
Issues for Evaluation of Target’s IP
评估被收购方知识产权时应考虑的问题
 For patents that cover the potential product of interest,
consider validity, scope of protection, and enforceability:
– Determine the scope of the claims
 Claim “construction”
– Validity over art previously cited and newly identified
in searches
 对于覆盖被收购方潜在产品的专利, 应考虑其有效性、保护范围
及可执行性:
– 确定权利要求范围
 权利要求解释
– 考虑先前被引用技术以及在检索过程中新发现技术的有效性。
66
Issues for Evaluation of Target’s IP
评估被收购方知识产权时应考虑的问题
– Scope
 Consider whether patents/claims cover product of
interest
 Consider whether patents/claims provide defensive
position against possible competitors
– Enforceability, i.e., any potential inequitable conduct issues
 For the potential product of interest
– Consider Freedom to Operate (“FTO”)
– 范围
 考虑专利/ 权利要求是否覆盖被收购方的潜在产品
 考虑专利/ 权利要求是否能提供辩护立场以防备可能的竟争
对手。
– 可执行性, 即任何潜在的涉及不公正行为的问题
 对于被收购方的潜在产品
67
– 考虑自由使用权问题
Dangers of Inadequate Due Diligence
不充分尽职调查的危害
 Failure to recognize that transaction itself may cause
change or loss of key IP rights of target
 Failure to recognize that transaction may impose
unwarranted IP obligations on suitor
 “Buying” an IP lawsuit and then losing on invalidity, noninfringement, and/or unenforceability and subsequently
defending antitrust lawsuits
 未能认识到交易可能造成被收购方重要知识产权的改变或损失
 未能认识到交易可能将无保证知识产权义务强加于收购方
 引致知识产权诉讼, 因专利无效、 未侵权和/或不可执行而败诉, 接
着就反垄断诉讼辨护。
68
Recommendations
建议
 Huge amount of information, very little time
 Team’s knowledge about the facts and the corresponding
legal issues is constantly evolving
 Regular and frequent status meetings, both among team
members and with the client, work best
 大量资料,时间紧迫。
 团队对于事实及相关法律问题的了解不断增加。
 最好的方法是定期举行进度会议,包括团队成员之间的会议
以及与委托人之间的会议。
69
Recommendations
建议
–
–
–
–
Efficiently disseminate information
Build consensus
Target investigation
Keep written positions on the issues to a minimum
–
–
–
–
有效地交流信息
达成共识
确定调查重点
尽量减少关于问题的书面意见
70
Recommendations
建议
 Issues uncovered by due diligence investigation
– May need to modify agreement to minimize risk
– May be able to initiate corrective procedures
 Inventorship
 通过尽职调查可发现的问题 :
– 可能需要修改协议以降低风险
– 可能会启动纠正程序
 发明人资格
71
Recommendations
建议
 Narrow claims through reissue or reexamination
 Broaden claims through reissue if within two years of the
patent’s original grant date or continuation application
and no reissue recapture
 通过重新领证或专利复审缩小权利要求范围
 通过重新领证扩大权利要求范围(必须自专利原始授予日
起两年内提出),或在不要求重新领证的情况下通过延续
案来扩大权利要求范围 。
72
Thank You!
谢谢!
Contact Information联系方式:
Ningling Wang
Managing Partner
Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett & Dunner, LLP
Shanghai Representative Office
Tel. 86.21.6194.2005
[email protected]
王宁玲
管理合伙人
美国飞翰律师事务所上海代表处
电话: +86.21.6194.2005
[email protected]
73
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