27_Animal Law(I) 動物法律

advertisement
Module 27
模組27
Animal protection
legislation (1)
動物保護立法(1)
This module will enable you to
此模組將使你能夠
• Understand aspects of different models of
legal system了解各種不同的法律系統
• Categorise different types of law分類不同種的法律
• Identify enforcement provisions in statute
辨別執行的法條
• Understand methods of enforcement in
practice瞭解實際上執行的方法
• Highlight reasons why legislation may be
ineffective in practice強調為何實行不彰的理由
The basis of legislation
立法基礎
Bernard Rollin說:「很清楚,法條通常影響公眾道德,且公
眾道德決定法條“Quite obviously, laws often do affect public
morality, and public morality determines laws”」
Definitions定義
Law(法律): a rule established in the community by authority or
custom; a body of such rules法律:是一個社群靠著權威跟傳
統建立的規則;一個具有這種規則的主體
Legislation(立法): law making; the body of law立法:建立法律,
法律的主體
Statute(成文法): a specific law passed by a legislative body 成
文法: 一個經過立法單位通過的法律
Offence(犯法): an act contrary to the law 反對法律的行為
Defendant(被告): a person accused of an offence in a court of
law被告: 一人在法庭被控告犯法
Plaintiff(原告): a person or body bringing an action in a court
of law 原告: 一個人或主體在法庭提出告訴
A model law 法律規格
• Identify aspects of the legal system within
which it must work 從立法系統之各層面去確認
法律的規格。例如歐盟之法規(directive)是由歐盟各
會員國執行,但亦同時屬於歐盟聯邦之法律系統。
聯邦和各國政府共同決定立法責任的歸屬,由此可
知法律系統的效果。
• Understand the different types of legislation
瞭解不同種的立法形式。(next slide)
• Identify characteristics of different types of
statute 辨別不同成文法的特色。
Legal system characteristics
法律系統特性
• Courts use both Statute and Case
(Common) Law法院使用成文法與判例(普通)法
– E.g. UK, Commonwealth & former
Commonwealth countries 例如英國, 英國聯邦
• Romano-Germanic Law, using solely
Statute Law大陸(日耳曼)法系, 僅使用成文法
– E.g., Continental European countries 例如
歐洲大陸的國家
• Theocratic Law, derived purely from
religious texts 神權法條的取得來自信仰
– E.g. Saudi Arabia and Iran 如阿拉伯、伊朗。
Legal system - basic principles
法律系統之基本原則 (1)
• Status of the accused – presumption of
innocence or guilt 控告的狀況–無罪或有罪之
假設(定罪之原則)
• 在英屬殖民地的國家裡,被告在被證明有罪之
前,都可能被視為無罪;
• 而日耳曼法系之原則則是,被告在被證明無罪
之前,都可能被視為有罪。
Legal system - basic principles
法律系統之基本原則 (2)
• 在刑法中之條文,其證明原則是「超越合理的
懷疑beyond reasonable doubt」;
• 在民法,則採「可能性的平衡on the balance
of probability」的證明方式。
• 何種證據是可接受的,從第三者而來的證據是
可接受的嗎?
• 何種身分的人(如從小孩或婦女)提供的證據方
可接受?法律上幾歲才算是成年?
Interpreting statute: the basis
of statute條文解釋:法條基礎
• Prohibitive e.g. The Animal Welfare Act 1966, USA what you must not do 禁止性的條文,如美國之動物福利法
(1966) -什麼是你不能做的。
• Prescriptive e.g. The Laying Hens Directive
99/74/EC, EU - what you must provide 規定性的,如歐盟
蛋雞指令(99/74/EC, EU) -你應提供什麼給動物。
• Cost/Benefit e.g. The Animals (Scientific
Procedures) Act 1986, UK - is the likely benefit
justified by the harm caused 成本/利益性的,如美國之科學
程序法(1986) – 因造成之傷害反過來證成可能的利益
Interpreting statute: identify the
offence 條文解釋(1):犯罪之認定
• The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960, India “to cause unnecessary pain or suffering” 印度之動物
防虐法:導致不必要的痛苦或傷害
• Code of Federal Regulations Chapter III, Part 313,
USA - “cause inhumane treatment”美國聯邦法第三章
313款:導致不人道對待
• Council Directive 91/630/EEC – the “Pigs Directive” “Member States shall ensure that conditions for
rearing pigs comply with….” 歐盟指令91/630/EEC:
會員國要確保該國之養豬業者需遵守…
Interpreting statute: to which animals is it
applicable and where?
條文解釋(2):[哪些動物] 與 [哪裡之動物]
• [哪些動物][哪裡之動物] The Agriculture
(Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1968, UK, applies
only to farmed livestock on agricultural land 英國
1968農業(其他規範)法案,只施行在農場的家畜
• [哪些動物] The Animal Welfare Act 1966, USA, does
not apply to farmed animals 美國1966動福法:不實
施在農場動物
• [哪些動物] The ‘Laying Hens Directive’, 99/74/EC,
EU, does not apply to: 歐盟蛋雞指令不實施於:
(1)establishments with<350 hens 低於350隻之規模;
(2)breeding laying hens 種用母雞
Interpreting statute: the nature of the
offence條文解釋(3):犯罪的性質
• Defendant’s mental state? 被告的心理狀態?
– Subjective mens rea 主觀的犯罪意圖
– Objective mens rea 客觀的犯罪意圖
• Strict liability 嚴格義務
– Mental state is not considered
心理狀態不列入考慮
(後續幻燈片)
The nature of the offence
- Subjective mens rea
犯罪的性質(1):主觀意圖
• The UK’s 1996 Wild Mammals Protection Act英
國1996年野生哺乳動物保護法案:
– ‘If any person mutilates, kicks, ….any wild
animal WITH INTENT to inflict unnecessary
suffering’假如任何人意圖殺傷、踢任何野生
動物導致不必要的受苦。
• The offence is tested in terms of the intention of
the defendant 此罪行將 [以被告的意圖定罪]。
The nature of the offence
- Objective mens rea
犯罪的性質(2):客觀意圖
• 以社會行為準則的比較來決定他是否犯罪(whether an
offence has been committed)
• The Animal Welfare Act 2006 (England and Wales).英
格蘭和威爾斯的新動物福利法案(2006)
– An offence to cause ‘unnecessary suffering’ 導致沒
有必要痛苦的犯罪
• The offence is tested against 5 points including定罪準
則五點包括:Whether the conduct was that “… of a
reasonably competent and humane person” 此行為是
否是 [一個具有理性的人,在任何情況下都不會做的。]
The nature of the offence
- Objective mens rea
犯罪的性質(3):客觀意圖
– Was the conduct for a legitimate purpose? 如
果行為有合法之目的?
• To benefit the animal? 對動物有利?
• To protect a person, property or another
animal? 保護個人、財產或另一個動物?
– Was the suffering proportionate to the
purpose of the conduct concerned? 動物所受
的苦楚是否與此人的行為之目的一致?
The nature of the offence
- Objective mens rea
犯罪的性質(4):客觀意圖
• Additional legal tests of “unnecessary suffering”
under the Animal Welfare Act 2006 (England and
Wales).英格蘭和威爾斯的新動物福利法案(2006)指出
的增加合法試驗的不必要痛苦
– Could the suffering have been avoided or reduced?
這個痛苦是否是可以避免或是減低的
– Was the conduct which caused the suffering in
compliance with any relevant enactment?這個行為
所導致的痛苦是否遵守了相關的法令
The nature of the offence
- Strict liability犯罪的性質(5):嚴格的義務
• The UK’s 1997 Welfare of Animals
(Transport) Order英國1997動物運輸規定
– An offence to transport an animal “in a
way which causes, or is likely to cause,
injury or unnecessary suffering”運送途中
發生或可能導致不必要的傷害或痛苦之罪
– The views of the defendant and society
are irrelevant被告和社會的觀點不一致
– If an animal is injured an offence has
been committed動物受傷則可確定犯罪
Interpreting legislation:
the status of the legislation
法律之解釋(1):法律狀況
• Primary legislation基本立法
– enacted through repeated debates in the
National Legislative body經過反覆的辯論制
訂國家立法主體
• Secondary legislation次要立法
– enacted by a Department of Government
with authority from primary legislation由政府
機關依照基本立法制訂
• Guidance documents指令文件
• Codes of Practice法規執行
Interpreting legislation:
relevance of status to effective protection
法律之解釋(2):有效保護之相關狀況
• Primary legislation 被列入基本立法
– Expensive and time-consuming to amend
in the light of new scientific evidence and
changing public attitudes to welfare當科學
新知與公眾態度改變時需要耗時耗資修訂
• Secondary legislation 被列入次要立法
– Readily amended可以節省時間立即修正
Interpreting legislation:
relevance of status to effective protection
法律之解釋(3):有效保護之相關狀況
• Guidance documents and Codes of Practice指令
文件和法規習慣
– May be used in the interpretation of statute but
failure to comply does not constitute an offence
可用在法條的解釋但不遵守並不構成犯罪
Interpreting legislation:
what powers are authorised?
法律之解釋(4):有效保護
•
•
•
•
•
•
Use of force 權力(主管機關)
Access 進入他人產權
Stop and search 停止和尋找
Seizure 扣押
Detention 拘留
Arrest 逮捕
Interpreting legislation:
what penalties are available on
conviction?法律解釋(5):定罪時如何罰?
• Monetary fine - what level? 罰款-罰多少?
• Imprisonment 監禁
• Prohibition of ownership 禁止所有權
• Prohibition of care 禁止照護
• Prohibition of production 禁止生產
Interpreting legislation:The legal status of
animals? 法律解釋(6):動物之法律狀況
• Property in all countries所有國家視為 [物 / 財產]
• EU Protocol on Protection & Welfare of Animals歐盟的
動物保護和福利協議
– Recognises animals as ‘sentient beings’承認動物為”有
感知存在體”
– Requires Member States to “pay full regard to the
welfare requirements of animals” when formulating and
implementing legislation要求會員國在制定及實行法律時
盡全力關切動物福利之需求
– No requirement to take account of economics不體諒經
濟因素
– Enforceable in law可實施之法律
歐洲國家規定,豬隻運輸的最高合法乘載密度是每
100公斤0.42平方公尺。The reality - pigs packed
into lorries at less than 0.35 m2 per 100kg 事實是:
豬被塞入貨車裝在每100公斤不到0.35平方公尺的擁
擠狀況
最高29小時之運輸規定:運輸14小時(包括上下車)後
休息一小時,然後繼續14小時之運輸。倘若運輸時數
超過24小時,牛隻必須要在獲認可的驛站休息與供應
食物及飲水,在休息24小後方可繼續運輸。事實是:
很多國家都不理,造成疲憊的牛
Reproduced with permission of CBS Press
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective動物
福利法律可能無效的理由 - 1
• Legal status of animals as property 法律視
動物為財產(沒有生命的物品)
• Prohibitive legislation not indicating the
provisions expected 禁止性的法律未指出應
該做到的指標
• Dependence on the status and
circumstances of the animal 保護動物要看動
物的地位和情況而定
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective動物
福利法律可能無效的理由- 1
寵物兔地位高待遇佳
實驗兔可憐
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective動物
福利法律可能無效的理由 - 2
• Compromises in wording of text due to
single interest lobbying during consultation
– For example, "a lying area which is
clean….., and either has wellmaintained dry bedding or is well
drained"由於單方面之利益遊說,使法律
用語妥協 – 例如:躺的地方要乾淨…,
且床要維持乾燥抑或排水良好
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective
動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 3
• Reinterpretation of terms by industry
bodies企業團體曲解法律條文:
– 在丹麥有一條法律,當被重新解釋後立即扭
轉了當初立法的本意。顯然,法律原本是打
算給母豬實心的躺臥地。豬商藉著重新定義,
將”實心”解釋成為包括”開口”,創造法律漏
洞讓老舊的封條狀地版豬舍可以繼續使用。
Danish ‘Enlandsgriseproduktion’ Scheme
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective
動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 4
• Responsibility for enforcement being spread
between government departments, so
reducing co-ordination 執法責任分散至很多政
府部門,減少力量
• Poor statute enacted in haste in response to
political pressure, e.g. 匆忙的立法只為了回應
政治壓力The Dangerous Dogs Act, UK (1991)
如英國之危險狗法律
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective
動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 5
• The subjective nature of the offences
causing different interpretations
between courts 犯法之主觀性質造成各
法院不同之解釋
• 如:農村出身與都市出身的陪審團與法
官對例行豬隻的閹割看法不同
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective
動物福利法律可能無效的理由-6
• Poor enforcement due to 執法不力之無效之可能原因:
– Limited resources 動保員不足資源有限
– Variable enforcement 畜牧生產與動物福利衝突
– Enforcement body sharing interests with those
policed 執法主體與警方分享利益
– Limits to powers of access, stop and search, seizure
and detention 限制公權力進入、停止和尋找,逮捕和
拘留的權力
– Commercial confidentiality商業機密
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective
動物福利法律可能無效的理由-7
• Statute has no provision for:法律沒有提供
– Power of seizure - defendants keep ownership of
animals during proceedings扣押的權力:被告在審判
過程中仍有動物之所有權
– Prohibition of ownership - convicted party permitted
to retain animals所有權的禁止:已經被判有罪者仍准
許保留動物
– Prohibition of care - ownership may be transferred
but care is still by convicted party照護權的禁止:所
有權可能轉移但已經被判有罪者仍有照護權
Reasons why animal welfare
legislation may not be effective
動物福利法律可能無效的理由- 8
• May have to accommodate可能受制於:
– Domestic, economic and political pressures
國內政治經濟壓力
– International agreements on trade
國際貿易約定
– Other, conflicting legislation
其他法律不協調
• See Module 28看模組8
Summary: A model welfare law
摘要:一個模範法律
• A single Statute, single Department 單一法律,
單一主管機關
•
•
•
•
Strict liability offences 嚴格義務之犯罪
Prescriptive 遠見
Comprehensive and coherent 整合協調
Powers of stop, search, seizure, detention制止,
尋找,扣押,拘留的權力
• Penalties of prohibition of ownership and care
禁止所有權和照顧的處罰
• National enforcement body國家級執法主體
• In a form most readily enacted and amended
立即實行和修正之精神
Further Reading進修書目
• Animal Welfare Act 2006. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/acts/acts2006/ukpga_20060045_en.pdf
• Defra 2006. Animal Health and Welfare: The Control of Dogs.
Available at:
http://www.defra.gov.uk/animalh/welfare/domestic/dogs.htm
• European Commission 2004. Overview of a series of missions
carried out in 2003 concerning animal welfare during transport
and at the time of slaughter. Available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/food/fvo/specialreports/sr_rep_85062004_en.pdf
• European Community Council Directive 2001/88/EC—Welfare
of Pigs. Available at: http://europa.eu.int/eurlex/pri/en/oj/dat/2001/l_316/l_31620011201en00010004.pdf
Further Reading進修書目
• Grandin T. 1992 Meat Focus International (July 1992) pp.124126 Effect of genetics on handling and CO2 stunning of pigs
Available at: www.grandin.com/humane/meatfocus7-92.html
•
•
Grandin The Welfare of Pigs During Transport and Slaughter.
Available at:
www.grandin.com/references/pig.welfare.during.transport.slaughter.ht
ml
Radford, M., 2001: Animal Welfare Law in Britain: Regulation and
Responsibility. Oxford University Press, New York
• Welfare of Farmed Animals (England) Regulations 2000.
Statutory Instrument 2000 No. 1870. Available at:
http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si2000/20001870.htm
• The Welfare of Farmed Animals (England) (Amendment)
Regulations 2003 Statutory Instrument 2003 No. 299. Available
at: http://www.opsi.gov.uk/SI/si2003/20030299.htm
Further Reading: Websites
進修書目:網址
• US legislation
– http://www.aphis.usda.gov/animal_welfare/index.s
html
• EU legislation
– http://www.europa.eu.int/
• Swedish legislation
– http://www.risksdagen.se/debatt/sfsr/index.asp
• UK legislation
– http://www.defra.gov.uk
Download
Related flashcards

Dog diseases

53 cards

Meat

22 cards

Sausages

22 cards

Bird diseases

24 cards

Parasites of mammals

57 cards

Create Flashcards