Emergent Readers

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Characteristics of Readers at
Different Stages
Created by Mrs. Jo-Ann Howard
Emergent Readers
Preschool to Early Grade 1
DRA Levels: A-6
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Understand that print
contains a consistent
message
Recognize some highfrequency words, names,
and simple words in
context
Use pictures to predict
meaning
Attend to left-to-right,
top-to-bottom
directionality and features
of print
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Identify some initial and
ending sounds in words
Can be prompted to
check for accuracy
Use prior knowledge and
their own experiences to
make meaning
Use repetitive story
patterns and language to
help with fluency and to
support their efforts to
attend to unknown words
Emergent Readers
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Early Readers
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Kindergarten through First Grade
Recognize most high- DRA Levels: 3 -16
frequency words and
many simple words
Use pictures to confirm
meaning
Can figure out most
simple words using
meaning, syntax, and
phonics
Use known spelling
patterns to figure out
new words
Are becoming more
skilled at monitoring,
cross-checking, and
self-correcting reading
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Are gaining control of
reading strategies
Use their own
experiences and
background knowledge to
predict meaning
Can retell a story or
recount things they’ve
learned
Occasionally use story
language in their writing,
especially at the
beginning of a piece
Early Readers
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Transitional Readers
Kindergarten through Grade 2
DRA Level: 18-28
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Recognize an increasing
number of words, many
of which are “difficult” or
content-related
Integrate meaning.
Syntax, and phonics more
consistently
Have a variety of ways to
figure out unfamiliar
words
Can summarize texts
they’ve read
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Can generally read
independent level text
with fluency, expression,
and proper phrasing
Are beginning to handle
longer, more complex text
with short chapters and
more interesting
characters
Are growing more aware
of story and text
structures, and can use
mapping strategies to
help organize their
Transitional Readers
ctrue
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Fluent Readers
Grades 1 through 5
DRA Levels: 30-44
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Identify most words
automatically
Consistently monitor,
crosscheck, and selfcorrect reading
Read chapter books
with good
understanding
Offer their own
interpretations of text,
based on personal
experiences and prior
reading experiences
Read for a variety of
purposes
May read a variety of genres
independently
May respond to text by
offering examples from
their own lives, or by
making connections to
other books they’ve read
or books by the same
author
Respond to the author’s
craft and may try to
mimic it in their own
writing
Fluent Readers
ctrue
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-fGET
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Early Emergent Readers
Book Selection
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Requires others to
select and read text
Reads familiar texts
with support
Reads DRA text levels
A-1
Below 90% accuracy
Later Emergent Readers
Book Selection
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Relies on others to
select and introduce
new texts
Reads a few familiar
texts independently
and new texts with
much support
Reads DRA text levels
A-2 at 90% accuracy
or above
Early Emergent Readers
Observable Reading Behaviors
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Is uncertain about
directionality
Points to words;
inconsistent one-to-one
match
Relies on others to
monitor reading
Is uncertain about letters
and words
Invents story
Later Emergent Readers
Observable Reading Behaviors
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Moves left to right on one
line of text
Points to words;
consistent one-to-one
match
Monitors using 1 or 2
known words (e.g. is, no,
yes)
Locates words and letters
“Reads” using picture
and/or language cues
Emergent Readers
ctrue
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“Early” Early Readers
Book Selections and Sustained Reading
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Selects new text with
support
Reads some familiar
texts independently
and new texts with
support
Reads DRA text levels
3-6 at 94% accuracy
or above
Later Early Readers
Book Selection and Sustained Reading
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Selects new text with
moderate support
Reads most familiar
texts independently
and new texts with
moderate support
Reads DRA text levels
8-10 at 94% accuracy
or above
“Early” Early Readers
Previewing and Predicting
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Gathers limited
information from the
teacher’s
introductions and the
pictures
Comments briefly
about each event or
action when
previewing pictures
Later Early Readers
Previewing and Predicting
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Gathers some
information from the
teacher’s introduction
and the pictures
Connects 1 to 2
events or actions
when previewing the
pictures (e.g. and,
then, now)
“Early” Early Readers
Oral Reading and Use of Strategies
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Reads word by word
Reads with no
intonation; monotone
At difficulty stops,
relying on support to
problem-solve
unknown words
Detects no miscues
Later Early Readers
Oral Reading and Use of Strategies
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Reads word by word
with some short phrases
Reads with little
intonation; rather
monotone
At difficulty, initiates
problem-solving of a few
unknown words
Self-corrects a few
significant miscues
“Early” Early Readers
Comprehension
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Very little Comprehension
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Using Retelling
Answering Questions
Later Early Readers
Comprehension
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Some Comprehension:
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Through Retelling
Answering Questions
Early Readers
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Early Transitional Readers
Book Selection and Sustained Reading
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Selects new text with
limited support
Reads familiar and
some new easy texts
independently
Reads DRA text levels
12-16 at 94%
accuracy or above
Later Transitional Readers
Book Selection and Sustained Reading
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Selects new texts that
are “just right” most
of the time
Reads many new easy
texts independently
Reads DRA text levels
18-24 at 94%
accuracy or above
Early Transitional Readers
Previewing and Predicting
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Gathers pertinent
information from the
teacher’s introduction
and the pictures
Connects events or
actions when
previewing pictures
with little or no
prompting
Later Transitional Readers
Previewing and Predicting
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Gathers limited
information from
teacher’s introduction,
paragraphs read
aloud, and selfinitiated preview
Predicts the next
possible event or
action; identifies 1 to
2 topics
Early Transitional Readers
Oral Reading and Use of Strategies
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Reads in short phrases
most of the time
Reads with some
intonation; some
attention to punctuation;
monotone at times
At difficulty, uses 1 to 2
cues to problem-solve
unknown words
Self-corrects some
significant miscues
Later Transitional Readers
Oral Reading and Use of Strategies
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Reads in longer phrases
at times; inconsistent rate
Adjust intonation to
convey meaning at times;
attends to punctuation
most of the time
At difficulty, uses multiple
cues to problem-solve
unknown words
Self-corrects most
significant miscues
Transitional Readers
Comprehension
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Adequate Comprehension:
Using Retelling
 Answering Questions
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Transitional Readers
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Early Fluent Readers
Book Selection and Sustained Reading
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Selects a variety of
“just right” texts
Reads new genres
with moderate
support
Reads DRA text level
28-34 at 94%
accuracy or above
Later Fluent Readers
Book Selection and Sustained Reading
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Selects a variety of
“just right” texts for
varying purposes
Reads new genres
with limited support
Reads DRA text levels
38-44 at 94%
accuracy or above
Early Fluent Readers
Previewing and Predicting
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Gathers some information
from teacher’s
introduction, paragraphs
read aloud, and selfinitiated preview
Predicts several possible
events or actions with
prompting; identifies
some topics with
prompting
Later Fluent Readers
Previewing and Predicting
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Gathers pertinent
information from
teacher’s introduction,
paragraphs read aloud,
and self-initiated preview
Predicts several possible
events or actions without
prompting; identifies
most topics without
prompting
Early Fluent Readers
Oral Reading and Use of Strategies
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Reads in longer phrases
most of the time;
adequate rate
Adjusts intonation to
convey meaning; attends
to punctuation
At difficulty, uses efficient
cues to problem-solve
unknown words most of
the time
Self-corrects most
significant miscues
quickly
Later Fluent Readers
Oral Reading and Use of Strategies
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Reads in longer,
meaningful phrases; rate
adjusted appropriately
Begins to explore subtle
intonation that reflects
mood, pace, and tension
At difficulty, uses efficient
cues to problem-solve
unknown words quickly
Self-corrects all
significant miscues
quickly
Fluent Readers
Comprehension
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Very good comprehension:
Using retelling
 Answering questions
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Fluent Readers
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tg/stores/d
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just-say-n
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m/justsa
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