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Leaving Certificate Music
THE BEATLES
It was 40 years ago today……..!
The Album
• Gave the audience a lot more than just the
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songs – they also got:
Two continuous sides of music
The definite feel of a live performance with all
the “extra” audience sounds
Mixture of styles – classical to Indian raga!
Printed song lyrics
An kaleidoscope of colours on the front cover
with the best “audience” collected in history
A cut out moustache along with stripes and a
badge
A 41 piece orchestra on a Pop record
There are 3 Beatles songs for study:
• Sgt Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club
• She’s Leaving Home
• When I’m 64
Syllabus requirements
All Levels!
• Understand, identify and describe the
range of musical features used
• Study its musical style and place it in its
historical context
• Analyse and Describe patterns of
repetition and change within the music
And also for Higher Level…….
• To make Comparative Judgements about
music
• To evaluate Interpretation and
Performance in the light of experience
already attained.
So what do I have to know?
• The album- dates
• Concept idea
• What makes it
•
different?
General overview of
the types of songs
on the album.
• As with all the set
works a thorough
knowledge of each
set song is important
as examiners are
most adept at asking
anything of interest!
What Kind of questions am I asked?
• Instrumentation
• Structure e.g. Verse, chorus
• Keys
• Textures
• Chord patterns
• Lyrics – word painting
• Production Techniques
What Kind of questions am I asked?
• Differences between individual verses in
particular She’s Leaving home
• Correct identification of each song and
individual parts e.g. Sgt Pepper bridge
section
• Be able to identify and insert missing
notes and chords
• Examples of Syncopation, Chromaticism,
etc – standard “classical” terminology also
applies to these songs
• Just because this is “pop” music we should
not underestimate the tremendous
musicianship of this group
Analysis (1) Sergeant Peppers
Hearts Club Band.
Brass
interlude 1
Middle
Interlude Verse 2
2
link
4 bars 8 bars
5 bars
12 bars
5 bars
8 bars
4 bars
1-4
13-17
18-29
30 -34
35 - 42
43 - 46
Intro
Verse 1
5-12
Analysis Sergeant Pepper (2)
Introduction
• Initial sounds of audience in a concert hall!
• Four bar instrumental with tune on lead guitar
Verse 1
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Homophonic texture
4 x 2 bar phrases
Key centres around G
Repeated notes 1st 2 bars made up of just 2
notes
Same chords as intro
Sergeant Pepper (3)
Brass interlude 1
• 4 French horns
• – London Philharmonic Orchestra
• Polyphonic Texture
• Key around G
Sergeant Peppers (4)
Middle Section – Longest Section
• Refrain – We’re Sergeant …….
• Vocal line rhythm is doubled in length i.e., semiquavers become
quavers!
• 2/3 part harmonies
• Descending D7 arpeggio on horns
• Typical pop hook used – catchy tune to grab your audience!
Interlude
• Chords as for Brass interlude
• Vocals
• Horns now a sustained dotted minim moving to quavers
Sergeant Peppers (5)
Verse 2
• Homophonic texture
• Key centres around G
• 4 x 2 bar phrases
• Repeated notes
• Same chords as intro
Link
• Similar to brass interlude
• Chords of C D E linking to With a little help from
my friends
Analysis ‘64
Recorded Dec 1966
Arrangement – George Martin
Structure
Intro
Bar
1-4
5-6
Verse1
Bridge1
A 7-14 C 23-30
B 15-22 D 31-39
Verse2
Bridge2
Verse3
Coda
A 40- 47
B 48-55
C 56-63
D 64-72
A 73-80
B 81-88
89 -92
’64 (2)
Intro – Fabulous use of 2 clarinets and 1
bass clarinet.
• Piano Vamp – (not part of Pop music)
• Really Jazz combo here!
• Such a great contrast to the previous track
’64 (3)
Verse 1
• 4 bar phrases A-B-A1-C
• Effective use of Chromatic notes
• C phrase – Harmonic sequence Ab-C-A7-D-G-C but with
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the added notes for colour.
Homophonic Texture
Augmentation “will you still ..”  “birthday greeting…”
’64 (4)
Bridge 1
• Begins in Am (relative minor)
• Melody less syncopated
• Much higher register used
• Alberti-type accompaniment
• Polyphonic texture ( John and Paul )
Verse 2
• Harmonic sequence F Ab C A D G C
’64 (5)
Bridge2
• Begins in Am (relative Minor)
• Melody less syncopated
• Much higher register
• Alberti –bass accompaniment
• Polyphonic Texture – particularly “we shall
scrimp and save”
• Use of diminution here minimscrotchets
’64 (6)
Verse 3
• Similar to verse 2 but
• More instrumental ad libs i.e.,listen to solo guitar
• Does not go to bridge again
• Clarinet in 3rds with vocalist
Coda
• Drum kit similar to opening
• Well timed oooh to finish
She’s Leaving Home - Structure
Intro Verse1
Chorus
Verse2
Chorus
Verse 3
Chorus
1-4
5-36
37-55
56-87
88-106
107-122
123-134
ABAB
CD
ABAB
CD
AB
C
Leaving home (2)
• Instrumentation
• String Nonet
• 4 violins
• 2 Violas
• 2 cellos
• 1 Double Bass
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1 Harp - Sheila Bromberg – 1st time a
woman appears on a Beatles song!
Leaving Home (3)
• Word Painting – some excellent examples here
The actual lyrics are wonderful, particularly the
reaction of the parents to what their daughter
has done. Their concern seems only to be for
themselves, which is why the girl leaves in the
first place. Also phrases like “she’s leaving
home after living alone for so many years”
perfectly captures the dysfunctional nature of
this family situation.
Leaving home (4)
Intro
• Harp Arpeggios
• Homophonic texture
• Fab contrast to previous
track
Verse 1
• Voice and harp
• Cello counter melody
(bar10 – 12)
• Form: ABAB, each phrase
gets a different
accompaniment
• Key: E (vocal score Eb)
• Word painting:
“downstairs” –
descending violin melody
Leaving Home (5)
Chorus 1
• Beautiful vocal
harmonies – Paul
Falsetto with John‘s
counterpoint
• Mainly 1 chord for 13
bars – Different forms
of Chord I (Eb- Score)
Verse 2
• Similar to 1st verse but
subtle differences in
accompaniment
• e.g. strings first then
Harp, cello has walking
bass idea
• much richer string texture
• Homophonic texture
• Word painting: Mother
sobbing – violin counter
melody
Leaving home (6)
Chorus 2
• As with 1st chorus but
again changes to the
accompaniment.
• Middle texture now
richer. (Viola)
• 18 bars divided into 8
and 10 bars respectively
+ 1 extra bar giving a
total of 19 bars
• this uncertainty in phrase
length may mirror the
daughters uncertain
future.
Verse 3
• Shorter than other verses
(Only 16 bars)
• Word painting: use of
tremolo strings daughters’ excitement at
her prospective meeting.
• Use of quaver movement
in cello part to mirror the
man in the “motor” trade!
Leaving Home (7)
• Chorus 3
• Like others but all string parts more animated
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e.g. violins play a repeated rhythm pattern here
Final chorus uses 20 bars as opposed to 19
perhaps she’s made the right decision?
Accompaniment “calms” down towards end of
this chorus – mainly dotted minims in upper
parts
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