CRJ270 - Chapter 11

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Introduction to Criminology
CRJ 270
Instructor: Jorge Pierrott
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Criminology Today
AN INTEGRATIVE INTRODUCTION
SEVENTH EDITION
CHAPTER
11
Crimes Against
Property
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Chapter Objectives
After reading this chapter, students should be able to
answer the following questions:
• What are the major forms of property crime discussed in
this chapter?
• What constitutes the crime of burglary? What are some
of its characteristics?
• What constitutes the crime of larceny-theft? What forms
does it take?
• What is motor vehicle theft? How prevalent is it?
• What constitutes the crime of arson?
• What are some characteristics of persistent and
professional thieves?
• What are the typical activities of receivers of stolen
property, and how are stolen goods distributed?
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Stolen Art Business
http://www.fbi.gov/news/videos?selected=2f369b14-7c40-4346-b6c0-7f6fb9a44534
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Burglary
• Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) /FBI definition
 The unlawful entry of a structure to commit a felony or theft
 Nevada definition – entry into a structure to commit a grand
or petit larceny, assault or battery on any person or any
felony, or to obtain money or property by false pretenses
• Residential burglaries do not involve direct
confrontation between victim and offender but can
cause fear with lasting effects
• Commercial burglaries can affect the continued
viability of the business
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Social Ecology of Burglary
• Lifestyle and routine activities theories
emphasize how criminal opportunity is
affected by victims' and offenders' everyday
activities/environments
 Structure of social life affects ease/difficulty of
carrying out inclination to offend
 Three ingredients are necessary:
• Motivated offender
• Suitable target and
• Lack of a capable guardian
• Highest risk are those with the highest and
lowest incomes.
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
A Typology of Burglars
• Low-level burglars
 Spur of the moment crimes
 Mainly juveniles, work with others,
easily deterred by locks, alarms,
security devices
 Rewards not significant, many desist as
get older
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
A Typology of Burglars
• Middle-range burglars
 Older, vacillate between crime and
legitimate activities
 Less easily deterred
• High-level burglars
 Professionals, work in organized crews
 Earn a good living from burglary
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Locales and Times of Burglary
• Nighttime residential and daytime
commercial burglary are considered the
most serious
• Burglary is a “cold crime” because
there usually is little physical evidence
to link the offender to the crime
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Motivation of Burglars
• The most prevalent rationale is the
need for fast cash
• Selection of burglary as the “crime of
choice”
 Burglary is familiar, the “main line”
 It is less risky than other offenses
 The offender may not own the
necessary equipment for robbery
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Target Selection for Burglary
• Commercial burglaries
 Suitability
 Retail establishments preferred
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Target Selection for Burglary
• Residential burglaries
 Key factors include knowledge of
occupants, tips, observation of potential
target
 Other influential factors include signs of
occupancy, security devices, dogs,
access to area
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Costs of Burglary
• Most household burglaries involve
economic loss
 Stolen property/money
 Time lost from work
• Property crimes like burglary have a
greater effect on the decision to move
than violent crimes
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Burglary-Drug Connection
• Increased demand for crack cocaine in
the 1980s affected crime rates
 Burglary rates decreased
 Robbery rates increased
• Crack trade created preference for
cash-intensive crimes (robbery) over
burglary
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Burglary-Drug Connection
• Shift in crimes consistent with the view
that property offenders tend to be
generalists
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Sexualized Context of Burglar
• Some burglaries have associated sexual
dynamics
 key types include fetishists and
voyeurists
• Some sexually motivated homicides
begin as burglaries
• Can be explained from the perspective
of opportunity theory
• Home-intrusion rape
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Professional Burglar
http://abcnews.go.com/2020/video/confessio
ns-burglar-19106837
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Larceny-Theft
• UCR definition
 the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding
away of property from the possession, or
constructive possession, of another
• Most frequently occurring property
offense.
 This includes stolen motor vehicles, followed
by shoplifting and thefts from a building
 FBI estimated that 6.2 million larceny thefts
occurred in 2012 for an estimated 68.5%
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Larceny-Theft
• Does not involve force or other means
of illegal entry
• Generally less frightening than burglary
• A crime of opportunity
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Shoplifting and Employee Theft
• Some retail theft is shoplifting, some
committed by store employees
 Most are short-term workers
 Internal theft more serious than loss
due to shoplifting
• Technology is one of the best ways to
address both types of theft
• Crosses class lines, not committed
primarily be women
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Who Shoplifts?
Caroline Giuliani
• Juveniles overrepresented as shoplifters
 More common in lower-income youths
• Majority of juveniles admit to shoplifting at some
point in their lifetime
• Maturing out pattern?
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Flash Mobs and Larceny
• Flash mobs
 Purposeful crowds brought together at a
moment's notice through use of social
media web sites
• Some involve organized criminal
activity
• Larcenies committed by flash mobs are
considered multiple-offender crimes
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Identity Theft
• The misuse of another's personal
information to commit fraud
• Main types
 Existing account fraud
• thieves obtain information on open
accounts
 New account fraud
• thieves use personal information to open
new accounts in the victim's name
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Identity Theft
• Costs of identity theft
 Direct losses to victims
 Indirect costs to businesses for fraud
prevention and harm mitigation
 Indirect costs to victims – civil litigation,
obstacles in obtaining or retaining credit
 Consumers' fears of victimization can
also harm the digital economy
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Identity Theft
• 1998 Identity Theft and Assumption
Deterrence Act made identity theft a
federal crime
• 2004 Identity Theft Penalty
Enhancement Act
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Incidence of Identity Theft
• BJS definition of identity theft
 Unauthorized use/attempted use of
existing credit cards
 Unauthorized use/attempted use of
other existing accounts
 Misuse of personal information to obtain
new accounts or loans, or to commit
other crimes
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Identity Thieves: Who They Are
• Hard to classify identity thieves
• Often have no prior criminal
background, sometimes have
preexisting relationship with victim
• Increased involvement of foreign
organized criminal groups in computeror Internet-related schemes
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Motor Vehicle Theft
• UCR definition
 The theft or attempted theft of a motor
vehicle
• Automobiles are the most commonlystolen type of vehicle
• Car theft violates victim beyond
financial loss
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Motor Vehicle Theft
• Largest percentage of vehicles stolen
from parking lot or garage
• Most motor vehicle thefts reported to
police
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Theft of Car Parts
• Motivations
 Car parts may be worth a lot
 Can be sold easily
 Harder to identify than entire cars
• 1984 Motor Vehicle Theft Law
Enforcement Act called for marking of
cars' major sheet metal parts with VINs
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Joyriders
• Car theft for fun
 Opportunistic car theft committed for
fun or thrills, usually by groups of teens
• Expressive act with little or no extrinsic
value
• Most vehicles stolen by joyriders are
recovered, usually found abandoned,
often after having been crashed
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Professional Car Theft
• Less common as thefts for other uses
• Professional auto thieves work in
groups characterized by planning and
calculation in target selection
• Professional thefts have lowest recover
rates
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Arson
• UCR definition
 The willful or malicious burning or
attempt to burn, with or without intent
to defraud, of a dwelling house, public
building, motor vehicle or aircraft,
personal property of another, etc.
• Majority of arrestees white males
• Motives vary from profit to thrill
seeking
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Fire Setters
• Majority of those involved in arson are
juveniles
• General groups of juvenile fire setters
 Children under 7
• start fires accidentally or out of curiosity
 Children between 8-12
• fire setting represents underlying
psychosocial conflict
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Fire Setters
• General groups of juvenile fire setters
 Children between 13-18
• have history of fire setting, usually
undetected
http://www.pahomepage.com/story/d/st
ory/shickshinny-firefighter-arrested-forarson/34800/0ZKfRfPT_EW9FlldSPhv7w
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Persistent and Professional
Thieves
• Professional criminal
 a criminal offender who makes a living
from criminal pursuits, is recognized by
other offenders as a professional, and
engages in offending that is planned
and calculated
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Persistent and Professional
Thieves
• Persistent thief
 one who continues in common law
property crimes despite no better than
an ordinary level of success
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Persistent and Professional
Thieves
• Offense specialization
 a preference for engaging in a certain
type of offense to the exclusion of
others
• Cafeteria-style offending
 the heterogeneous and unplanned
nature of offending among gang
members
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Persistent and Professional
Thieves
• Occasional offender
 a criminal offender whose offending
patterns are guided primarily by
opportunity
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Criminal Careers of Property
Offenders
• Criminal career
 Criminal behavior that is an integrated,
dynamic structure of sequential unlawful
acts that advances within a wider
context of causal and correlative
influences…
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Criminal Careers of Property
Offenders
• Phases of criminal career in property crime
 Break-in period – early years of an offender’s
career 10-12 years old
 Stable period – highest commitment. Most
identifies with the criminal lifestyle. Period where
rehabilitative efforts are more likely to fail.
 Burnout phase – 40 years of age, where the
criminal begin to drop out of the lifestyle.
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Property Offenders and Rational
Choice
• Rationality
 activities identified by their impersonal,
methodological, efficient, and logical
components (rational choice)
• Burglars employ a “limited, temporal
rationality”
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Receivers of Stolen Property
• Basic elements
 Buying and receiving
 Stolen property
 Knowing it to be stolen
• Fence is least common method of
disposing of stolen goods for most
thieves
 most common method used by
professional burglars
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Role of Criminal Receivers
• Professional receiver
 Purchase stolen goods on regular basis
for resale
 May be generalist or specialist
• Avocational receiver
 buys stolen property part-time,
secondary to but associated with
primary business activity
continued on next slide
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
The Role of Criminal Receivers
• Amateur receiver
 otherwise honest people who buy stolen
property on relatively small scale
Criminology Today, 7th Edition
Frank Schmalleger
Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
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