Chapter 14 The Roman Republic 508B.C. –30 B. C.

video footage gathered in Rome and at sites of Ancient Roman ruins around
Europe shows the glory and grandeur that was Rome. 51min.
Chapter 14 The Roman Republic
Words, Terms and People to Define and Know
 Consuls
 Legionaries
 Veto
 Senate
 Dictator
 Twelve
 Triumvirate
 Tribunes
 Latifundias
 Publicans
 patricians
 Punic Wars
 Hannibal
 Gaius Marius
 Julius Caesar
 Octavian
Chapter 14
The Roman Republic
508 B.C. –30 B. C.
1.I can Compare direct and
representative democracy
examples of ancient Athens,
the Roman republic and the
United States today.
2. I can Describe the essential
characteristics of the systems
of government found in citystates, kingdoms and empires
from ancient times through the
Middle Ages.
Roman reenactors dressed as Roman soldiers beginning from
earliest Republican times in the center, later Republican times c.
100 B.C to the left and Empire times c. 150 A.D. to the right
How Rome Grew and changed from 320 B.C. to 530 A.D.
Rome; the creator, shaper, and
transmitter of culture to the Western World.
List of maps of the ancient Roman World
Roman Society and Culture
“In Greece the measure was the man: in Rome it was
Bust of Alexander the Great idealism,
the LAW! ”
In Rome organization, discipline, obedience to
ancestral tradition and custom were the most
important aspects of communal life.
“Mos Maiorum”
portraits of grim-faced,
middle-aged men
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus
(r. 211–17 A.D.), nicknamed
Obedience to custom, tradition and Rome itself
Horatius at the Bridge—story (read) p.470 B.O.V.
The disposition to take things seriously
A dignified manner; an innate right to respect and ethical treatment. The
Strength of character to honor your word.
The Story of Regulus
(read) 617 B.O.V.
The Constitution of the Roman Republic was an unwritten set of guidelines
and principles passed down mainly through precedent.[2] The Roman constitution
was not formal or even official. It was largely unwritten, uncodified and constantly
Laws First written down around 450 B.C.
Chart showing checks and balances of government under the Republic
Complicated isn’t it? Just remember that in the Republic
real power was originally in the hands of the Senate
Another Way Of Looking At The
Flow of Power In the Republic
American System -- based on balance of powers/functions
Our system protects the rights of the individual against the power of the state
Supreme Court
Roman System -- based on balance of interests
more concerned with protecting the interests of various societal groups
Monarchical Aspects
Aristocratic Aspects
Democratic Aspects
2 Consuls
Senate 300 members
Assembly of Tribes
+ other magistrates
Directed government and army
Acted as judges
Could issue edicts
Acted as chief priest
Controlled state budget
Could pass laws
Approved/rejected laws
Decided on War
Tribune could veto actions of
Acted as final court
Basis of power:
Basis of power:
members were richest
men in Rome.
Basis of power:
provided most of the
Limits on power:
could not control army
needed majority as soldiers.
Limits on power:
Could not suggest laws
often paid as clients by the elite
possess imperium, the right to
need for leadership
Limits on power:
one year term
each could veto
 In
the American system of government the
powers of government are divided to
prevent any one branch from becoming
too powerful. We operate under a system
of checks and balances. We also have a
written constitution that guarantees
individual rights and protects citizens
against abuses of the power of
government. No one is above the law and
there are no distinctions in the law
concerning class, or social position.
Section One: Summarizes the
rise of Roman democracy
 I.
The Government
People to Know: Tarquin
Terms to Learn:
Terms to Learn:
the Proud ( last Etruscan king who was overthrown)
Terms to Learn: Plebeians
A. Two consuls headed Roman Republic
• 1. Administrators and military leaders: Lucius
The CuriaQuinctius
Julia in the Roman
Forum, the seat
the imperial
(44 BC.)
Book of Virtue
pgs. 671-74
Curia Julia is one of only a handful of Roman structures to survive to the modern
 a.)
of veto
on the other
day intact, due
to its
the basilica
of Sant'Adrianoal
Foro in the
seventh century.
 b.) Both had to agree for laws to be passed
 B. Senate (Senatus is derived from the Latin word senex, meaning old man or elder;
Senate is, by etymology, the Council of Elders.)
• 1. 300 men chosen for life (although the number grew through time.)
On a piece of paper
answer these three
• What are the
qualities of a good
• Should leaders
always be
measured by the
results they
• Have the qualities
of good leaders
changed over
I. Cont.
2. Handled daily problems of govt.
3. Advised the counsels
Terms to Learn:
 C.
Tribunes–govt. officials who
protected the rights of plebeians
Those who held the office of Tribune were granted sacrosanctity
the right to be legally protected from any physical harm, the power
to rescue any plebeian from the hands of a patrician magistrate,
and the right to veto any act or proposal of any magistrate,
including another tribune of the people and the consuls. The
tribune also had the power to exercise capital punishment against
any person who interfered in the performance of his duties.
In the case of ancient Rome-the
clothes really do make the man!
(read Guys in Sheets)
to Tell
1. The
the Latin
'tegere' meaning
to cover.
It was
a loose outer
One Roman
garment without sleeves which was open from
the waist upwards, worn by the ancient
Romans, consisting of a single broad piece of
woolen cloth of a shape approaching a
semicircle. 2. The toga was gracefully draped
by placing an edge on the left side of the body
which extended from the lower legs up over the
shoulder, around the back and beneath the right
arm. The loose end of cloth which remained was
thrown over the left shoulder.
3. There were specific laws called Roman Sumptuary Laws which
dictated which type of clothing could be worn by Romans. This
included the type of material, the style of the clothes and the color
that people were allowed to wear. 4. These laws ensured that a
specific class structure was maintained in the Roman Republic and
the Roman Empire. Only Roman citizens were permitted to wear
the toga. Emperor Augustus enforced the public wearing of the toga
by males in the center of Rome and in the media cave of the theater.
Foreigners and banished Romans were banned from wearing the
toga. 5. Only the Emperor was allowed to wear a toga which was
entirely colored in purple. Statues of gods were also dressed in the
purple toga. 6. Only the augurs were allowed to wear a saffron
toga. A toga with stripes on the border symbolized the status of the
wearer such as senators and magistrates. The toga picta or toga
palmata was a toga with a gold border which was only permitted to
be worn by generals in their triumphs. The toga symbolized a
garment of peace.
Guys in Sheets
7. During the early period of the Roman Republic the
toga was at first worn by women as well as men.
However, a garment called the stola was introduced
and worn by married women. 8. Prostitutes and
women condemned for adultery, were not permitted to
wear the stola and forced to wear a toga. A toga-clad
prostitute was called a togatae.
9. The color of the toga worn by men was generally
white, that is, the natural colour of white wool. Hence it
was called pura or vestimentum purum. 10. The toga was
kept white and clean by the fuller. When this was
neglected, the toga was called sordida, and those who
wore such garments sordidati. 11. A black or dark
colored toga was worn as a sign of mourning. The augurs
wore a saffron colored toga. The colors of the borders on
the toga indicated the status of the wearer.
How to wear a sheet-- or,…how I will ensure I’ll
never be considered normal by my friends.
12. How to Make a Toga from a Bed Sheet
How to make a toga from a bed sheet is easy! The type of sheet should
preferably be white and the sheet
to work with
is an unfitted top
sheet. The instructions on how these
to make
a toga from a bed sheet is as follows it's easier if you have someone to help with the draping:
The bed sheet should be draped over a t-shirt and/or shorts
Take a corner
of theway…you’re
bed sheet in one hand
hold in front of the top of
your left shoulder with your chin
Drape theprospective
sheet firmly across
your chest andyou’re
tuck it under
the right
Wrap the the
toga around
job! your back
Tuck it under the left arm and again around the front of your chest
like and
the second
bring it across your chest, under your arm and
around your back
Bring the corner of the bed
up over
your back
you’ll look like this!
Secure the two ends with a brooch, a safety pin or a knot
basic tunic
equestrian tunic
(tunica angusticlavia)
The Tunic: the basic item of
dress for men.
senatorial tunic
(tunica laticlavia)
The basic item of male dress was the tunic, made of two pieces of undyed wool sewn together
at the sides and shoulders and belted in such a way that the garment just covered the knees.
Openings for the arms were left at the top of the garment, creating an effect of short sleeves
when the tunic was belted; since tunics were usually not cut in a T-shape, this left extra
material to drape under the arm. Men of the equestrian class were entitled to wear a tunic
with narrow stripes, in the color the Romans called purple but was more like a deep
crimson, extending from shoulder to hem, while broad stripes distinguished the tunics of
men of the senatorial class. Most ancient statues do not show these stripes Working men and
slaves wore the same type of tunic, usually made of a coarser, darker wool, and they
frequently hitched the tunic higher over their belts for freer movement. Sometimes their
tunics also left one shoulder uncovered. The basic female garment was the stola. It was essentially a
long tunic reaching to the ground. It could have long or short sleeves, or be entirely sleeveless.
The stola was generally worn over another long tunic, the tunica interior.
I. Continued
D. All Roman citizens belonged to the
E. 450 B.C. Roman laws written down
on the Twelve Tablets
1. 12 Tablets posted in the Forum
and were important because they
made laws pubic for all citizens to
2. Laws expand and by 250 B.C. no
one could be sold into slavery And
Plebeians could hold public office
Section Two: describes the army’s role in the Roman
 II.
Roman Expansion
 A. Romans cross the Tiber River
Aerial view and
of the Tiber
Island and bridges several Etruscan
 B. Either conquered neighbors
or made alliances
 C. By 146 B.C. Rome ruled most
of the Mediterranean world.
Roman Federation
Several Degrees of Privileges
 Full Roman Citizenship—full
protection of the law
 “Sine Suffragio”—Citizens without the
 “ Socii” (allies) –Roman protection,
but liable for troops
Rome’s Conquest of Italy
As time passed, the number of legions grew; but for many centuries each legion remained the same
size. Legions of 4,200 fought against Hannibal in the Second Punic War (218–201 BC); but by the
time of Julius Caesar, in the first century BC, a legion could contain as many as 6,000.
The critical difference between the phalanx formation and the flexible legion
was initiative. The Greek phalanx was a frontal attack that used all the
soldiers of the army and, once it was set in motion, could not deviate from
its path, while the Roman legion's use of smaller flexible groups made it
possible for some groups to fight in one place while other groups could
fight elsewhere, including the rear where the phalanx had no protection.
6:02 run time
Roman general Flamininus defeats Philip V at Battle of Cynoscephalae
In 197 B.C. Demonstrating the superiority of the maniple system (video clip 8:19
The soldiers of the Roman army would
daily practice their combat skills.
For this they would use
shields made from wickerwork and
wooden swords in order not to injure each other.
Replica gladius. Note: the triangular ricasso or unsharpened portion of
the blade just below the hilt is a historical inaccuracy as no historical
gladii have been shown to possess this feature.
The Testudo (Tortoise)
The orb was a defensive formation in the shape of a complete circle which could be taken by a unit which had
either become detached from the army's main body and had become encircled by the enemy, or a formation which
might be taken by any number of units if the greater army had fallen into disorder during a battle.
It can hence be seen as a formation representing a desperate 'last stand' by units of a collapsing army. But also it
A perfect illustration of the repel cavalry formation.
can be seen as a disciplined holding position by a unit which has been divided from the army's main body in battle
a main
try ittois barge
its way
and whichItiswould
waiting for
to rejoin
them. In
either case,
not a formation
would like to
oneself in, as it obviously indicates that they are surrounded by the enemy. Naturally any officers or archers would
be positioned in the centre of the orb, as can be seen in the example above.
'Marius' Mules'
So weighed down were the soldiers by all their stuff, that they
were nicknamed 'Marius' mules' (after the famous Roman
general Gaius Marius (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) ).
The pugio or dagger was worn on the left, and a gladius, or short sword, on
the right. Both were Spansih types copied by the Romans. The sword was a
terrible stabbing weapon, short enough to wield easily in the crush of battle. It
was horribly effective against the most un armoured Gauls.
Military sandals (caligae) were as important as armour, because
the legions won wars by fast marches as much as by battle. These
boots were strong and well-ventilated. with patterns of iron
hobnails especially designed to take weight and withstand miles of
This whole city is a treasure trove of
II. Cont.
 D.
Roman legions
Roman remains, having been built in 25
BC as a strategic outpost defending the
(Northern Italy) northeastern alpine border.
The well-preserved walls, Porta Pretoria,
Arch of Augustus and ancient theatre
(open 9:30-12 and 2:30-6:30 [2:30-4:30 in
winter]) are made even more picturesque
by the mountainous surroundings, and
there's a goodRECONSTRUCTION
provincial museum
A typical1st or 2nd century turf walled small fort capable of
1. 5000 soldiers divided into groups of 60120 soldiers.
2. Each legionary depended upon his
own fighting ability
3. Built fortified towns fort and roads
holding a quingenaria cohort (480 infantry men).
Barracks blocks for the six centuries (1)
Workshops or stores (2)
The granaries (3)
Headquarters building (4)
Commander's house (5)
More stores or workshops at the rear of the fort (6)
Run Time: [06:53]
The Legions included surveyors, architects, engineers, and craftsmen who rebuilt the empire
when not in battle.
4. Mild rulers, let conquered people keep
own governments.
5. Conquered people expected to serve in
the Roman army
Carthaginian Empire
Punic Wars: The Playing Field
Battle of Cannae
Battle of Zama
Section Three: discusses Rome’s rise to power in the
Mediterranean region
III. The Punic Wars
People to Know: Hannibal Barca
A. 264 B.C. Rome comes into conflict with
city of Carthage map Kothoa video on Carthage 45 minutes
(child sacrifice) Carthage’s fleet
B. Carthage ruled western half of Sicily
C. First Punic War
1. 264 B.C. War breaks out and lasts for 23 years
2. Carthage was a naval power Rome was a land power.
3. Rome builds navy using Carthaginian warship as model
• (a.) Romans add a corvus
• (b.) defeat the Carthagians
in 241 B.
D. Hannibal and the Second Punic war
Scipio Africanus
Places to Locate: Carthage
Places to Locate: Sicily
Places to Locate: Gaul
E. Rome attacks Carthage and Hannibal is defeated at
the Battle of Zama 30
III. Cont.
"Delenda est Carthago!"
Carthage must be destroyed!
1. 201 B.C. Carthage pays Rome a huge sum on
money and gives up all Spain including resources
of copper, gold, lead and iron
F. The Third Punic War
Cato the Elder
1. Following 2nd war there was peace for 50
2. 149 B.C. Rome burned Carthage and plowed
salt into its fields and killed or sold its inhabitants
into slavery
3. 146 B.C. Greek city-state of Corinthmap refused
to obey an order and the Romans burned it to the
ground–this added Greece to those areas under
their rule
Places to Locate: Corinth
Section Four: Analyzes the effects of foreign
 IV.
Effects of Conquest
A. Agricultural Changes
• 1. Small farms were replaced by latifundias
(large estates
• 2. Romans begin to import wheat from
conquered areas
• 3. Hannibal’s invasion led to the change in
• 4. By By 146 B.C. Rome begins enslaving
people, most of whom worked on the
shown Germany between Stuttgart and Lake Constance at the end of the 1st century AD
 B.
From Farm to City
IV. Cont.
1. Small farmers who sold their land
moved to the city–Rome
 2. Crowded into wooden apartment
 3. Aquaducts
that bought water into the
Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Italy In 354 there were
952 public baths
Romethe sewer that carried waste away
were not connected to the apartments
Roman brick is a type of brick with
 4. Fire and disease common
of 12" x 4" x 2" (30 cm x 10 cm
x 5 cm), making it longer and narrower
 5. Farmers sell their votes to politicians to
(6:2:1 ratio) than most types of brick made
in the U.S. make
8 × 4 × 2¼
a inches.
brick was spread by the Romans to the
lands they conquered.
IV. Cont.
 C.
Decline of the Roman Republic
1. Rome demands taxes and slaves from
conquered areas
2. Tax contracts collected by
• (a.) tax contract was to be no more than 10 %
above the tax
3. By 135 B.C. Rome was in economic
trouble due to the loss of independent
farmers and Romans buying luxury goods
from elsewhere
4. Rich and poor fear and distrust each
other and Rome becomes politically
Section five: examines the attempts to solve
the Republic’s problems
V. 100 years of attempted reforms
A. The Reformers
and Caius
st reformer
1. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus
Sempronius Gracchus
2. 123 B.C. Tiberius Gracchus’s brother Gaius
Sempronius Gracchus elected tribune
(a.) made limited amount of land a person could own
(b.) ran for a second illegal term and was killed along
with his followers during a staged riot
(a.) moved poor from city back to countryside
(b.) had govt. take over sale of wheat and sell it to poor
below market price
(c.) In 121 B.C. the Senate had him killed
B. The Generals
Terms to Learn: Dictator
Terms to Learn: Triumvirate
V. cont.
• 1. 107 B.C. General Gaius Marius becomes consul
 (a.) first lower class Roman elected to the office
• 2. Established professional army paid for by the state-opened to anyone
• 3. Offered pay,
land pensions
and booty
• 4. Transfers loyalty from the Republic to the generals
• 4:44 min. allegiance to Rome was diluted by foreign
5. Gaius Marius opposed by Lucius Cornelius Sulla
6. Sulla marches his army on Rome and seized the city
7. Civil war breaks out and Sulla makes himself dictator
8. Sulla doubles the size of the Senate and weakened the
power of the tribunes
• 9. Stopped generals from holding the same army for more
than one year
C. Julius Caesar
1. Sulla retires and fighting ensues for control of Rome
Imperator and Dictator 61 - 44 B. C.
"I came, I saw, I conquered!"
These words express the
incredibly strong will and nononsense attitude of one of
history's most famous men. Julius
Caesar was courageous
quick-witted. He was also very
good with people. But…
(actual scary story read in class—you should have been there!)
V. Cont.
 2.
60 B.C. power passes to a triumvirate
( three person group of rulers)
 a.) Marcus Licinius Crassus
 b.) Gnaeus Pompeius
 c.) Julius Caesar
 3.
Crassus dies (while on campaign in
Syria against Parthia. defeated at the
Battle of Carrhae in June 53 B.C.) and
Pompey and Caesar fight for power
 4.
In 50 B.C. Caesar marches his army
into Rome (crosses the Rubicon BOV p. 477) by 46 B.C. he was dictator
or Rome 7 22 min.
 5.
Pompey defeated at Farsala (see Hail
Caesar! Video)
 4.
Pompey murdered in 48 B.C.
 5. Caesar’s reforms
 a.) redistributed lands
 b.) gave land to ex-soldiers
 c.) Build roads and buildings, drained
2:48 Fire in the Museum
Run Time: [05:07]
Julius Caesar's First Triumvirate led to his control the Republic, but in 44 BC,
Caesar was assassinated by senators who opposed his absolute power.
V. Cont.
(d.) est. gladiatorial games
(e.) doubled size of Senate and lessened their power
f.) gave citizenship to Greeks, Spaniards and Gauls and
adopted a new calendar based on Egyptian calendar–
Julian Calendar.
• (g.) Caesar killed on the Ides of March (March 15th ) 44
B.C. by senators who feared he would become king.
D. End of the Republic
1. Power passes to another triumvirate
• a.) Mark Antony–East
• b.) Octavian, Caesar’s grand-nephew and adopted son-West
• c.) Marcus Aemilius Lepidus–Africa
2. The civil war that followed Caesar’s death
ended with total victory for Octavian
Causes of Political Decline of the Roman Republic
Booty and Profits of War
Too much wealth too quickly
Wealthier elements benefits, lower classes do not. Profits from
war leads to competition for high office and extensive bribery
Heightened Status of Roman Senators
Emergence of Slave Agricultural Economy
Shift from small farms to Latifundia
No sufficient police force to watch slaves
Slave revolts in 136-130 B.C.
105 B.C. slaves revolt in Southern Italy
72-70 B.C. Sparticus’ Revolt
The Servile Wars were a series of three slave revolts between 13571 B.C. In 73 B.C. one of every 3 people living in Italy were slaves.
The Third Servile War: 73 BC – 71 BC in mainland Italy, led by
Spartacus 22 minutes
Emergence of Rome as an Imperial Capital
rapid growth, surplus population under employed, squalid living
conditions, people could not return to the land
Changes in the Military from citizen soldiers to professional army
Rome Gives Us Our Concepts of
Government and Citizenship:
Romans developed written laws and the 1st
representative republic based on elected
officials; it later became an empire.
SPQR is an initialism from a Latin phrase, Senatus
Populusque Romanus ("The Senate and the People of
Rome" or "The Senate and Roman People"),
Scientific and Cultural
Advances: Est. concepts of law,
engineering (arches and Concrete) and
Latin Languages.
Possible Essay Questions for Test Chapter 14
 Compare
the system of
government in the United States to
that of the Roman Republic. What
are some similarities and
 In
essay form briefly outline the
reasons for and the results of the
three Punic wars.