2.3 Phonology

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Chapter 2 Phonetics and
Phonology
Phonetics
----A branch of linguistics which studies the
characteristics of speech sounds and
provides methods for their description,
classification and transcription, e.g. [p]
bilabial, stop.
Three branches of
phonetics
• Articulatory phonetics----from the speakers’ point of
view, “how speakers produce speech sounds”
• Auditory phonetics----from the hearers’ point of view,
“how sounds are perceived”
• Acoustic phonetics----from the physical way or means
by which sounds are transmitted from one to another.
Speech organs: three important
areas
•Pharyngeal cavity ---- the throat;
•The oral cavity ---- the mouth;
•Nasal cavity ---- the nose.
The diagram of speech organs
1. Lips
2. Teeth
3. Teeth ridge
(alveolar)
4. Hard palate
5. Soft palate (velum)
6. Uvula
7. Tip of tongue
8. Blade of tongue
9. Back of tongue
10.Vocal cords
11.Pharyngeal cavity
12.Nasal cavity
Orthographic representation of speech
sounds
---- A standardized and internationally accepted system of
phonetic transcription is the International Phonetic Alphabet
(IPA). The basic principle of the IPA is using one letter to
represent one speech sound.
• Broad transcription ---- used in dictionary and textbook for
general purpose, without diacritics, e.g. clear [ l ], [ pit ]
•
Narrow transcription ---- used by phonetician for careful study,
with diacritics, e.g. dark [ l ], aspirated [ p ]
Some major articulatory
variables
---- dimensions on which speech sounds may
vary:
• Voicing---- voiced & voiceless
• Nasality ---- nasal & non-nasal
• Aspiration ----- aspirated & unaspirated
Classification of English speech
sounds
---- English speech sounds are generally classified
into two large categories:
• Vowels
• Consonants
Note: The essential difference between these two
classes is that in the production of the former the
airstream meets with no obstruction of any kind in
the throat, the nose or the mouth, while in that of the
latter it is somehow obstructed.
The Table of Phonetic Transcription
in English
Classification of consonants
---- English consonants may be classified
according to two dimensions:
• The manner of articulation
• The place of articulation
The manner of articulation
• stops/plosives: [p], [b], [t], [d], [k], [g];
• fricatives: [f], [v], [s], [z], [W], [T], [F], [V], [h];
• affricates: [tF], [dV];
• liquids: [l](lateral), [r];
• nasals: [m], [n], [N];
• glides/semivowels: [w], [j].
The place of articulation
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
bilabial: [p], [b], [m], [w];
labiodental: [ f ], [v];
dental: [W], [T];
alveolar: [t], [d], [s], [z], [n], [l], [r];
palatal: [F], [V], [tF], [dV], [ j ];
velar: [k], [g], [N];
glottal: [h].
The place of articulation
1. Bilabial;
2. Labiodental;
3. Dental or
interdental;
4. Alveolar;
5. Palatoalveolar;
6. Palatal;
7. Velar;
8. Uvular;
9. Glottal.
The description of English
consonants
Place
manner
Voicing
Bilabial
Stops or
plosives
VL
[p]
VD
[b]
Fricatives
VL
Labiodental
Alveolar
Palatal
[t]
[d]
]
[s]
[F
[T
]
[z]
[V ]
[h]
]
VL
([tF] ) [tF]
VD
([dV]) [dV]
Nasals
VD
Liquids
VD
Glides
VD
[N
]
[n]
[l], [r]
[w]
Glottal
[g]
Affricates
[m]
Velar
[k]
[f ] [W
[v]
VD
Dental
[j
]
Classification of vowels
---- English vowels can be divided into two
large categories:
• Monophthongs or pure/single vowels
• Diphthongs or gliding vowels
Monophthongs or pure/single
vowels
----According to which part of the tongue is held
highest in the process of production, the vowels
can be distinguished as:
• front vowels: [I:], [I], [e], [Z], [A], [B];
• central vowels: [E:], [E], [Q];
• back vowels: [u:], [u], [C:], [C], [B:].
According to the openness of the
mouth
• Close: [I:], [I], [u:], [u].
• Semi-close: [e], [E:];
• Semi-open: [E], [C];
• Open: [A], [B], [C], [B:], [Q];
The diagram of single vowel
classification by applying the two criteria
so far mentioned:
According to the shape of the lips or
the degree of lip rounding
• rounded: [u:], [u], [C:], [C];
• unrounded: [I:], [I], [e], [Z], [A], [B],
[E:], [E], [Q], [B:].
According to the length of the
vowels
• long: [I:], [E:], [u:], [C:], [B:]
• short: [I], [e], [Z], [A], [E], [Q], [B], [u],
[C].
Diphthongs/gliding vowels
• [ei], [ai], [aU], [EU], [Ri], [iE],
[ZE], [UE].
Exercises: underline the words that begin
with a sound as required.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
A bilabial consonant: mad sad bad cad pad had lad
A velar consonant: nod god cod pod rod
Labiodental consonant: rat fat sat mat chat vat pat
An alveolar consonant: nick lick sick tick kick quick
A palato-alveolar consonant: sip ship tip chip lip zip
A dental consonant: lie buy thigh thy tie rye
A glide: one war yolk rush
Underline the words that end with a sound as
required:
• A fricative
pay horse tough rice breath push sing wreathe
hang cave message
• A nasal
train bang leaf limb
• A stop
drill pipe fit crab fog ride laugh rack through
tip
• An affricate: rack such ridge booze
Underline the words that contain the
sound as required:
• A central vowel:
mad lot but boot word
• A front vowel:
reed pad load fate bit bed cook
• A rounded vowel:
who he bus her hit true boss bar walk
• A back vowel:
paid reap fool top good father
Describe the underlined consonants
according to three dimensions:
vd/vl
Letter
Brother
Sunny
Hopper
Itching
Lodger
Calling
Singing
Robber
either
place
manner
Phonology
Warming Up
1. Why Vowels in English are not classified as
consonants?
2. How English vowels are classified? Or What
possible ways do we have to divide the
English vowels into different classes?
3. Describe [u:] by means of the different ways
of classification. If a vowel is described as
back, rounded, open and short, what sound
is it?
4. What is liaison, elision and assimilation?
Illustrate them with examples.
2.3 Phonology
Phoneme: smallest phonological unit that
distinguish meaning.
1. Form and meaning: signifier vs signified
2. Identifying the sounds:
sip
zip
alveolar/fricative/+-voicing
fine
vine labiodental/fricative/+-voicing
chunk
junk palatal/liquid/+-voicing
3. Phonemes involved: /s//z//f//v/tF//dV/
4. Testing: substitution (pen/ben; pen/pin)
2.3 Phonology
Minimal pair: a pair of words identical in
every way except for one sound segment in
the same position.
Chunk Ban
Bet
Fan
Fine
Sink
Site
Junk
bat
van
vine
zinc
Side soup
bin
Seed
Minimal set: a group of words
differentiated by one sound segment in the
same position.
vowel
Feat; fit; fate; fat; fought; foot
consonant
Big; pig; rig; fig; dig; wig
2.3 Phonology
Free variation: When the substitution of two or more
sounds in the same position does not result in any change
of meaning, they’re said to be in free variation. economics
You say [i]ther and I say [ai]ther,
You say [ni:]ther and I say [nai]ther,
[i:]ther [ai]ther [ni:]ther [nai]ther
Let’s call the whole thing off.
Distinctive features: features that distinguish one
phoneme with another. Seal/zeal
b
d
g
Stop
+
+
+
Voiced
+
+
+
Bilabial
+
-
-
Alveolar
-
+
-
velar
-
-
+
2.3 Phonology
Supresegmental features: distinctive features above the level of
individual segments over a sequence of two or more phonemic segments such as syllable,
word, phrase and sentence which may also distinguish meaning.
Syllable: longer than one sound and smaller than a word.
Phonetically: a unit consisting of a center which has little or no airflow and sounds
comparatively loud.(sonority scale: klasp14521)
Structurally:
syllable
onset
rhyme
nucleus
coda
Phonologically: it concerns the way vowels and consonants combine to form various
sequences. (sequential rule:CCCVCCCC)sixths
Terms: Close/open syllable; Initial cluster: splash; medial cluster: pastry; final cluster: test
Three-consonant cluster
i. [s] ii. [p] [t] [k] iii. [l] [r] [w] [j]
e.g. spring, scream, string, squeal, square, splendid, stew
2.3 Phonology
Stress: intensity or prominence given to one syllable
rather than another.
Word stress: import/import
Phrase stress: black bird; green house
Sentence stress: I love you.
Logical stress: I love YOU.
Tone: pitch variation (妈麻马骂 car)
Intonation: variation in stress, pitch or loudness (falling;
rising; fall-rise; rise-fall)
That’s not the book he wants.
Tone group
John didn’t come because of Mary.
2.3 Phonology
Summary:
Phonology
Difference between phonetics and phonology
Phoneme
Minimal pair/set
Free variation
Distinctive features
Suprasegmental features: syllable, stress, tone,
intonation, tone group
Homework: exercise 5,6 and 7.
THANK YOU
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