compliments - Anna Bączkowska

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MUTLIMODAL SUBTITLING OF
COMPLIMENTS
a cross-lingusitic perspective
What Women Want
Nancy Meyers, staring Mel Gibson and Helen
Hunt, 2003
Anna Bączkowska
Kazimierz Wielki University
Dept. of English Studies
Bydgoszcz, Poland
annabaczkowska.com
COMPLIMENTS, AVT, MULTIMODALITY
• Publications devoted to audiovisual translation, including subtitling,
loom large and rapidly gain popularity (Díaz Cintas 2009, Díaz Cintas
and Ramael 2007, Orero 2004, Chiaro et al. 2008).
- interest has been shown recently towards compliments (Herbert 1986,
Holmes 1986, 1988, 1995, Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk 1989, Boyle
2000).
-Reports on compliments in subtitles are scarce (Bruti 2006,
2009, in press),
SUBTITLES
COMPLIMENTS
• multimodal approach to subtitles (Taylor 2003, 2009, Pettit 2007)
Perego 2009, Chuang 2006, 2009, Bączkowska a, in press),
• multimodality analysed in the context of pragmatic issues in subtitles
has not been an object of extensive research as yet (see Mubenga
2009,MULTIMODALITY
Desilla 2009, Bączkowska b, c, in press.
SUBTITLES
PRAGMATIC ISSUES
COMPLIMENTS
CROSS-LINGUISTIC
TYPES OF COMMUNICATION: ELEMENTS
OF COMMUNICATION
Kress
MULTIMODALITY
Baldry
Gunther Kress, socio-semiotic theory of communication
Kay O’Halloran – teaching, advertisements
Anthony Baldry – advertisements
Paul Tibault – turn-taking
Christopher Taylor – 2003, 2009,
Taylor
Perego
multimodal transcription
Ying Ting Chuang
Chuang
Multimodality-lab.net
Poland, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Taiwan, Sweden, UAE, Belgium
MULTIMODALITY AND AVT
Multimodality looks at how non-verbal signals
visual and gestural signals, kinesics and
proxemics interact with verbal signals in the
construction of meaning. These operate in
parallel in the same context and “create
meaning seamlessly and synergistically”
(Matthiessen 2009).
MULTIMODALITY AND AVT
Multimodality looks at how non-verbal signals
Previously, language has been viewed as
constituting the central channel in interaction,
and nonverbal channels have been viewed as
being subordinated to it. While much valuable
work on the interplay between the verbal and
nonverbal has been established, I believe that the
view which unquestionably positions language at
the center limits our understanding of the
complexity of interaction. (Norris 2004: 2).
COMPLIMENTS
WHAT IS?
A compliment is a speech act which explicitly or
implicitly attributes credit to someone other than
the speaker, usually the person addressed, for some
‘good’ (possession, characteristic, skill, etc.) which is
positively valued by the speaker and the hearer.
(Holmes 1986: 485).
WHEN USED?
-creating solidarity and a common ground,
-expressing goodwill, praise and encouragement
-maintaining rapport
(Holmes 1995).
TAXONOMY
-Kerbrat-Orecchioni (1987) : direct and indirect
straightforward act of attributing positive values to an addressee v being
expressed by making reference to another (third) person.
You are beautiful is a direct compliment
You are as beautiful as your mother
-Holmes (1995): direct v indirect (You’re looking good v Is that a new suit)
Indirect > covert
What a polite child. Thank you, we do our best.
-Boyle (2000): explicit v implicit
Your daughter is very nice, she has the same beautiful eyes as her mother
INDIRECT: X AS ADJ AS Y: 2 PERSONS COMPLIMENTED
IMPLICIT: greater epistemic difference
-Bruti(2009): overt, covert, dishonest/false (irony, criticism) ,
sincere/spontaneous
Formulaic (a. appearance), noncanonical/creative
STRATEGIES OF RESPONSE
Herbert (1986) : 12 strategies (approval, contradiction, comment, attenuation,
asking for interpretation, questioning, etc.
PERSPECTIVES
Direct: You perspective
Indirect: I perspective or He perspective
Kate to Peter: Peter, you’re a genius (YOU are a
genius)
Kate to Peter: Peter, you are my idol (I perspective)
Kate to Peter: Peter, you remind me of Brat Pitt, who
is so handsome (HE perspective as the atributes
describe Pitt directly, but Peter indirectly)
ANALYSIS
DATA: What Women Want
Languages: Polish, Italian,
Swedish, Portuguese, Spanish
(Arabic)
61 scenes
183 dialogues (in 3 lang.)
Each scene numbered and entitled
Quantitative analysis
Smaller no of compliments in TTs
Direct translated into indirect
Some compliments are added by subtitlers
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. ARE NONVERBAL (EXTRALINGUISTC LINGUISTIC) SIGNALS ALLOWED
FOR IN SUBTITLES
2. ARE THERE ANY SHIFTS IN COMPLIMENT TRANSLATIONS
Qualitative analysis
1. Shift in perspective
Compliment preserved in Pol., attenuated in It.
Verbal and nonverbal signals in harmony
• 2. English direct > indirect
Compliment attenuated
Verbal and nonverbal signals in harmony
• 3 lack of synchrony
Compliment preserved
V and NV signals semi-compatible in Polish -one gesture left
without description, in Swedish-incompatible, compatible in
Italian
• 4 no visual signals allowed for
Compliment preserved
V and NV signals – incompatible in Polish
• 5 cross-cultural differences in forms of address
• Compliment – preserved
• V and NV signals – compatible (nv signals complement
lack of explicit form of address)
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. ARE NONVERBAL (EXTRALINGUISTC LINGUISTIC)
SIGNALS ALLOWED FOR IN SUBTITLES
NOT ALWAYS (LACK OF SYNCHRONY WITH VISUAL
SIGNALS)
2. ARE THERE ANY SHIFTS IN COMPLIMENT
TRANSLATIONS
YES
DIRECT INTO INDIRECT IN ITALIAN
MORE DIRECT IN POLISH THAN IN ITALIAN
NOT ALL COMPLIMENTS ARE TRANSLATED
Linguistic conventions play a role!
CONCLUSIONS-DISCUSSIONIMPLICATIONS
TT SHOULD ALLOW FOR :
ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACK AND VISUAL SIGNALS
TRANSLATOR TRAINING IMPLICATIONS
COMPLIMENTS SHOULD NOT BE CHANGED, SHIFTED
TRANSLATOR TRAINING IMPLICATIONS?
THANK YOU
You are great audience!
MUTLIMODAL SUBTITLING OF
COMPLIMENTS
a cross-lingusitic perspective
What Women Want
Nancy Meyers, staring Mel Gibson and Helen
Hunt, 2003
Anna Bączkowska
Kazimierz Wielki Unviersity
Dept. of English Studies
Bydgoszcz, Poland
annabaczkowska.com
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