Pre 1840 maori pakeha relations part 2

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Part 2
Missionaries
• Were more important than other Europeans in
race relations
• Needed cooperation of Maori as did others, but
• Usually Missionaries came to stay
• They sought to change Maori life and society
• Humanitarian and missionary organisations
influenced governemnt policy in Britain
• Attempts to convert ‘heathens’ were part of
overall Christian renewal in Britain
First Missionaries
• From Church Missionary
Society
• 1814 Marsden brought lay missionaries to
Rangihoua in Bay of Islands.
• To encourage a spirit of trade
• Through trade bring Maori to Christianity
• Expected to set moral example
• Not usually interested in trying to understand
Maori culture
Early Missionaries cont’d
• Initially poor conditions and
relied on Maori to survive
• Dominated by local Maori to start with
• Achieved little as missionaries of Christian
faith
• Presence added to existing interaction
between Maori and Pakeha
• Interdenominational rivalry puzzled Maori
Samuel Marsden
• A Chaplain, magistrate and
landowner in NSW
• Met a number of Maori including
Te Pahi (1805) in Sydney
• Considered Maori potential Christians
• 1807 asked Church Missionary Society to
sponsor mission to NZ
• Became Society’s chief agent in South pacific
• NZ delayed until 1814 – Boyd incident
• Visited NZ 7 times to keep missions going
Thomas Kendall
• Developed some knowledge of Maori
• 1816-18 school at Rangihoua but it failed
through lack of supplies
• 1820 publisheda grammar of NZ language
• Tried to understand Maori concepts and
symbolism
• Evangelical, temper, sense of sin – fell out with
other missionaries
• Had a sexual liaison with a Maori servant and
former pupil
Rev Henry Williams
• 1823 arrived in Bay of Islands
• Influenced CMS and its relations
with Maori
• 1830s missionaries all around North
Island
• Ex-naval officer and strong leader and
energy
• Aquired mana for himself and missionaries
Rev Henry Williams cont’d
• Williams related well to Maori leaders and
was not intimidated by them
• Used spiritual teaching rather than
civilisation to convert
• Re-established schooling for Maori
children
• Reduced missionaries involvment in trade
• Encouraged missionaries to speak Maori
Other Denominations
• Weslyans at head of Whangaroa Harbour
1823-27.
• Initially Maori dominated Weslyans
insisting on trade rather than teaching
• Mission sacked 1827 – Weslyans fled
• Rebuilt Mangungu at Hokianga under
protection of Patuone and Waka Nene
Catholics
• Bishop Pompallier from France
in 1838
•
•
•
•
•
Mission established at Kororareka
Pompallier tall and had impact and presence
Learnt English and Maori
Travelled extensively
Too late to have much influence as Maori turned
away from Christianity in 1840s
Closer in 1830s
• Pace of acculturation increased
• Maori and Pakeha more dependent on
each other
• NZ became closer to Britain and outside
world
Acculturation
• Maori became more afflicted with European
diseases
• Maori began to adopt Christianity
• Took up alcohol and tobacco
• Increasing number of Europeans-2000 by 1840
approx
• Most interaction in North of North Island
• More ships visiting (Bay of Islands had 24 per
year in 1820s to 137 per year between 1834-29)
• More indirect contact away from northern North
Island
Maori and Christianity
• 1830s - thousands of Maori accepted
Christianity
• Maori saw no conflict between accepting
Christianity and continuing traditional
formds of religious activity
• Most conversion from Maori evangelists
rather than missionaries
• First Maori conversions were slaves
Acceptance
• Mid-1830s most missionaries spoke Maori
• William Williams had translated whole of
New Testament to Maori
• Common Prayer book translated by 1837
• Colenso printed first Maori new
Testaments Dec. 1837
• Written word gave Maori access to
European knowledge
Maori Conversion
• For desire for links with Pakeha and access to goods
such as arms
• Adaptations of Christianity
• Interpretations of Maori teachers
• Access to European power
• Missionaries offered way of coping with disease
• More effective missionary methods
• Intellectual curiosity
• Means of ending warfare
• Appeal of literacy
• Some acceptance of Western dominance
Nature of Conversion
• Did not turn Maori into ‘brown Europeans’
overnight
• Maori stimulated by biblical ideas but still held to
traditional beliefs
• Maori identified with Jews but also saw Jesus as
offering hope for the future
• Literacy acquired was of Te Reo but Maori also
began to need English
• Maori adapted christianity -’adjustment cults’.
Papahurihia
• A Ngai tahu tohunga developed Maori
religious movement in 1830s based on
Maori beliefs and biblical teachings
• Name of god worshiped was Papahurihia
• Followers called Hurai (Jews)
• Observed Sabbath on Saturday
• Opposed Protestant missionaries
Wiremu Tamihana
• Of Ngati Haua and a Maori leader
influenced by a CMS missionary
• 1830s- directed his tribe towards Christianity
• Had mana of his father and own deeds
• Saw Christian god as more powerful than Maori
Atua – agreed with co-existance
• Established new christian village – Te Tapiri and
Peria
• 1840s also lead people in establishing farming,
teaching and maintaining justice
Late 1830s
• European settlement had more impact on Maori
relations in North
• By late 1830s most Maori impacted by
Europeans
• Missionaries encouraged Maori to look to Britain
as their protector
• From 1826 a British naval ship visited from NSW
regularly
• Missionaries developed power because of faith
and were seen as represenatives of British
British Representative
• Busby appointed 1833
• Waitangi Maori gathering 1834 Busby
asked chiefs to select a flag
• 28 Oct 1825 Busby encouraged chiefs to
sign a Declaration of Independence
• British governemnt recognised Declaration
and independence of Maori
• Protection extended to Maori
Busby’s Failure
• Tribal rivalry, competition and
war
• Inability to introuce British
authority
• Any more steps would have to be more
formal before settlement
• Change of British view from one that
accomodated Europeans in NZ to one that
accomodated Maori.
Pressures
• Lawless Europeans in North
• Mutual dependence broken down by
increased numbers of Europeans
• Maori still wanted more trade and access to
Europeans
• Missionaries wanted to protect Maori from
Lawlessness
• British traders petitioned for more control and
enforce peace
• Exagerated reports of unrest sent to Britain
• CMS agitated for British control to protect Maori
British Actions
• 1837 Busby suggested a British protectorate for
NZ
• 1837 Hobson suggested not a full takeover but
more involvment and negotiation
• British government considered a charter but idea
rejected
• Genuine concerns for Maori but no idea of how
to protect them from unscrupulous Europeans
• Unwilling to expend money on any involvement
Fcators Influencing Increased
British Involvement
• French and US becoming more interested
in NZ
• Shonky land deals
• NZ Company sought to establish colonies
whether Britain involved or not
• British governemnt changed in 1839 and
so new policy
• ‘Tory’ left in 1839 followed
by 6 emigrant ships
The Tory
Decision
• British government decided
on formal intervention
• No consultation with Maori
• July-August 1839 Limited intervention decided
upon to control settlers and protect Maori
• Treaty needed as Britain had already accepted
Maori sovereignty and independence under the
Declaration of Independence in 1835.
References
• Based on Graham Langton, (2005) Pre1840 Maori/Pakeha Relations in Year 13 –
New Zealand in the 19th Century.
Auckland: ESA Publications. pp. 55-64
References
• Based on Graham Langton, (2005) Pre1840 Maori/Pakeha Relations in Year 13 –
New Zealand in the 19th Century.
Auckland: ESA Publications. pp.55-64
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