A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day. Emily Dickinson THE POETRY COLLECTION Our Objectives What is it we want to accomplish with this unit? ∆ Identify literary elements used in poetry with special emphasis on imagery. ∆ Identify and analyze literary elements used in poems with special emphasis on figures of speech. ∆ Respond to poetry using a variety of techniques. Essay Assignment Within an essay, compare and contrast two poems that we will be covering in this unit. Choose any two poems that are alike in one important way. Take notes over the information that is presented. The poems that you compare or contrast may have similar subjects or themes or similar figures of speech. Your essay will focus on how each poem uses one or more features. Analysis Features that are shared Differences in Poem #2 Differences in Poem #1 Writing Are the two selections alike or different? In what ways? Write a summary of what you have discovered. More than likely, this will be a part of your thesis statement. Like all essays, a comparison/contrast essay has three basic parts: Introduction Body Conclusion Reading Poetry – page 489 Look for punctuation in the poem telling you where sentences end and begin. If a passage of a poem is difficult to understand, look for the subject. Be alert for figurative language. Read the poem out loud. After you have read the poem, read it again. A Narrow Fellow in the Grass page 490 Identify the subject. Identify the figurative language. Read the poem out loud. Interpretation? Walt Whitman A noiseless patient spider, I mark'd where on a little promontory it stood isolated, Mark'd how to explore the vacant, vast surrounding, It launched forth filament, filament, filament, out of itself. Ever unreeling them, ever tirelessly speeding them. And you O my soul where you stand, Surrounded, detached, in measureless oceans of space, Ceaselessly musing, venturing, throwing, seeking the spheres to connect them. Till the bridge you will need be form'd, till the ductile anchor hold, Till the gossamer thread you fling catch somewhere, O my soul. Elements of Literature Setting the scene can be internal, external or both. How does imagery in poetry evoke feelings and create sensory impressions? An image is a single word or phrase that appeals to one of our senses. When I heard the Learn’d Astronomer page 496 What words or phrases are repeated in lines 1 -4? How does the repetition help the reader understand the speakers mood? In this poem, how many scenes do you see? Carl Sandburg page 503 Poetry is an echo, asking a shadow to dance. -Carl Sandburg Fog The fog comes On little cat feet. It sits looking Over harbor and city On silent haunches And then moves on. page 503 Foggy Weather Sandburg’s poem “Fog” appeals to our sense of motion by comparing the movement of fog to the movement of a cat. This is called extended image. E.E. Cummings in Justspring when the world is mudluscious the little lame balloonman whistles far and eddieandbill come running from marbles and piracies and it's spring when the world is puddle-wonderful the queer old balloonman whistles far and wee and bettyandisbel come dancing from hop-scotch and jump-rope and it's spring and the goat-footed balloonMan whistles far and wee and wee in Just page 505 A cliché is an overused, worn-out expression or phrase. Poets want to find fresh images that help us see the world in an unusual or original way. in Just Cummings uses spacing, word position, and repetition to give this poem a very musical quality. He also chooses his words with great care. What does the word Just mean? What do the images ‘mud-luscious’ and ‘puddlewonderful make you think of? Figurative Language Figures of speech are words or phrases that describe one thing in terms of another different thing. In a simile, the writer compares two unlike things using a word such as like or as. In personification, the writer speaks of something nonhuman as if it has human qualities. Life dealt him a heavy blow. Figurative Language A tool authors use to help the reader visualize or see what is happening in a story or poem. In everyday language, we describe things by comparing them with other things. Examples of similes: She was as brave as a lion. His face felt like sandpaper. She addressed the class like a sergeant-major. Pop Quiz Similes or Metaphors? Love is a red, red rose. Joe is a walking encyclopedia. Chris looks as white as a sheet. Keisha has a mind like a razor. Angela blossoms in the spring. Mitch can be as cold as ice. Personification In personification, the non-human is identified with the human or given human characteristics. Life dealt him a heavy blow Pop Quiz Complete the following sentence: You should have the subject of each sentence do something that a human would do. Mike’s truck ________________. Fear wrapped its ________________. Jealousy _____________. The moon ________________. The wind ______________. Making Meanings All of these poems contain images of moments and miracles in nature. What image in Fog and in Just did you find most striking? Why do you think Sandburg thought the fog was like a cat? What other cat actions could fit in Fog? E.E. Cummings is famous for his unusual pronunciation and arrangements of words. Why do you think Cummings made single words out of the names Eddie and Bill, Betty and Isbel? Imagine: Writing Focus The experience of reading a poem can be like taking a trip through time and space. Think about how poets use their own imagination to stir the imagination of the reader. I Never Saw a Moor I never saw a moor, I never saw the sea; Yet know I how the heather looks, And what a billow must be. I never spoke with God, Nor visited in heaven; Yet certain am I of the spot As if the chart were given. Reading Dickinson Out Loud http://laughingsquid.com/bill-murray-reading-poetry-to-construction-workers/ (begin 2:35) Check for understanding Yes or No My understanding of a poem improves with several readings. I find that I understand a poem better if I analyze its use of figurative language. I appreciate a poem more if I pause to visualize the imagery. It is helpful to hear other people read a poem aloud. Making Connections Read Beware: Do Not Read This Poem page 531 Read Eyeglasses for the Mind page 532 How does Steven King’s interview relate to Beware: Do Not Read This Poem? What figurative phrases does King use to personify the door? How does King make ‘eyeglasses for the mind’? In both King and Reed’s writing, they have elements of a thriller. Music is often used to prepare viewers in movies for what they are about to see. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvCI-gNK_y4 jaws theme Robert Frost Fire and Ice Some say the world will end in fire, Some say in ice. From what I've tasted of desire I hold with those who favor fire. But if it had to perish twice, I think I know enough of hate To say that for destruction ice Is also great And would suffice. Fire and Ice page 541 With what emotion does the speaker indirectly compare fire? Ice? What does the speaker suggest by saying the world may end in either fire or ice? What does the effect of the word ‘suffice’ at the end of the poem? Alice Walker’s Women They were women then My mama's generation Husky of voice--stout of Step With fists as well as Hands How they battered down Doors And ironed Starched white Shirts How they led Armies Headragged generals Across mined Fields Booby-trapped Ditches To discover books Desks A place for us How they knew what we Must know Without knowing a page Of it Themselves. page 556 Conflict page 570 External conflict is where a character struggles against some outside force Internal conflict is a struggle between opposing needs or desires or emotions with a single person.