New Centers of Civilization
The Role of Nomadic Peoples
 In the area of Central Asia a
civilization flourished around
4,000 years ago.
 On the edges of this
civilization were pastoral
nomads, who occasionally
overran settled communities
and then created their own
 These nomads used
domesticated animals for
food and clothing and used
regular migratory routes to
provide food for their
Central Asia
The Role of Nomadic Peoples
 Settled communities often viewed nomadic people as
 Nomads would interact with settled communities to
trade and act as couriers from one community to
 In times when normal patterns were disrupted for
nomadic peoples they would often attack settled
communities for food and supplies.
The Role of Nomadic Peoples
 One of the most important
group of nomadic peoples
were the Indo-Europeans.
 Their languages included
Greek, Latin, Persian,
Sanskrit and Germanic.
 Around 1750 B.C. a group
of Indo-Europeans moved
into Asia Minor and
Anatolia and formed the
Hittite Kingdom with a
capital located at
The Hittite Kingdom
The Role of Nomadic Peoples
 Between 1600 and 1200 B.C.
the Hittites created an
empire in western Asia and
threatened the power of the
 The Hittites were the first to
wield iron weapons which
were stronger than the
commonly used bronze
 Around 1200 B.C. the Hittite
Empire was destroyed by a
group of people only known
as the “Sea Peoples”.
Extent of the Hittite Empire
The Phoenicians
 The Phoenicians lived in
what is now modern day
 Their main focus was
overseas trade as they
produced purple dye, glass
and cedar for export to
foreign markets.
 The main centers for the
Phoenicians were the cities
of Byblos, Tyre, and Sidon.
The Phoenicians
 The Phoenicians built
ships from cedar and
established an extensive
trade routes and colonies
throughout the
 The Phoenicians ships,
called Triremes, are
thought to have reached
as far as the coast of
Great Britain.
Phoenician Trade
The Phoenicians
 The Phoenician culture is
best known for its
 The Phoenicians simplified
their writing by using 22
different signs to represent
the sounds of speech.
 It would eventually be
passed on to the Greeks
which was adopted and
changed into the Roman
alphabet which we use
The Phoenician Alphabet
The Israelites
 Abraham is considered to
be the father of the
Hebrew nation. He and
his household left the
Mesopotamian city of Ur
and settled in Canaan.
 The land of Canaan
contained rocky hills and
desert, fertile plains, and
grassy slopes, with the best
farming in the Jordan
River Valley.
Abraham’s Journey to Canaan
The Israelites
 The Hebrews believed in one
God, Yahweh or Jehovah.
Their belief in one God, or
monotheism, made them
different than the
surrounding cultures.
 God made a covenant or
agreement with Abraham
telling him that he would
make a great nation from
Abraham’s descendants if
they would remain faithful to
“Abraham’s Journey from Ur to Canaan” him.
(Jozsef Molnar, 1850)
The Israelites
 Abraham’s grandson
Jacob, also known as
Israel, raised twelve sons
in Canaan, each led a
separate family group or
tribe which became the 12
tribes of Israel and would
become known as the
The Israelites
 During a severe drought
in Canaan the
Israelites migrated
or moved to Egypt.
The Israelites lived in
the Egyptian province of
Goshen peacefully for
several generations
until the pharaohs
decided to enslave
The Israelites
 The Hebrews life
became hard as they
were forced into hard
 The Israelites believed
that God would send
them a deliver to lead
them out of Egypt.
 Moses, a Hebrew
raised in the royal
palace would reject his
Egyptian upbringing
and lead his people out
of captivity.
“Departure of the Israelites”
(David Roberts, 1829)
The Israelites
 Moses would rally his
people and lead them out of
Egypt in a mass Exodus.
 During their time in the
desert of the Sinai
Peninsula, God renewed
his covenant with the
Israelite people and gave
them the Ten
 In return for their loyalty
the Israelites were
promised the land of
The Land of Canaan
The Israelites
 Moses would die before
"The Children of Israel Crossing the
(Gustave Dore 1883)
reaching the land of
Canaan and the
Israelites would be led
across the River Jordan
by Joshua, their new
 The Israelites would
spend over 200 years
trying to gain control of
the region. They at first
would be ruled by a set of
Judges, who were
temporary leaders in
times of danger.
The Children of Israel Crossing the Jordan"
(Gustave Dore 1883)
Possible Route of the Exodus
The Israelites
 The Israelites would
spend over 200 years
trying to gain control of
the region. They at first
would be ruled by a set
of Judges, who were
temporary leaders in
times of danger.
 The 12 tribes of Israel
would settle in Canaan
and divide the land
among themselves.
The Israelites
 Around 1020 B.C. the
Israelite tribes would face
pressure from the attacking
Philistines. They would
unite under one king, Saul.
 Saul would be unable to
defeat the Philistines. He
would be succeeded by a
shepherd named David.
 David had once fought the
Philistine giant named,
“Saul and David”
(Rembrandt, 1670)
The Israelites
 David would take the
“King David Playing the Harp”
(Gerard van Honthorst, 1622
throne of Israel in 1012
 He would set up a religious
and political capital at
Jerusalem, expanded
Israel's borders, and
centralized the
 Israel's borders would
encompass all of Canaan
from the desert to the sea.
King David’s Kingdom
The Israelites
 David’s son Solomon
would rule after his
father and would bring
Israel to the height of its
 Solomon was responsible
for building the temple
in Jerusalem. It would
become the center of
worship in the Kingdom
of Israel.
Solomon’s Temple
The Israelites
 After the death of
Solomon the ten northern
tribes separated and
formed an independent
Kingdom of Israel with a
capital at Samaria, and
the two southern tribes
were known as the
Kingdom of Judah.
The Israelites
 In 722 and 721 B.C.
Israel was conquered by
the Assyrians who sent
many Israelites to parts
of the Assyrian Empire.
 It was during this time
that they would merge or
assimilate into
surrounding cultures,
losing their identity.
Assyrian Exile of Israel
The Israelites
 The Kingdom of Judah
remained independent
until the Chaldeans of
Babylon defeated the
Assyrians and conquered
 The people of Judah (Jews)
were taken to Babylon.
 Their captivity lasted 70
years until the Persians
conquered Babylon and
they were allowed to return
to Judah.
Judah’s Exile to Babylon