File - Dale`s Digital Classroom

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1st 9 Weeks
Academic Vocabulary
With Question Stems
Irony
(see pg. 257, 265, 273, 274, 276, 279 in PH Literature)
Irony is a contradiction between appearance and
reality—it is the difference between what is
expected and what really happens. In a story,
situational irony can happen if something happens
in the story that contradicts the expectations of a
character or of the reader.
Example: In the story “The Girl Who Can” was
criticized throughout the story for having “scrawny” legs
and small hips, only to be praised by the end of the story
for being a good runner.
Dramatic Irony
(see pg. 893 in PH Literature)
Dramatic Irony is a contradiction between what a
character thinks and what the audience knows to be
true. This type of irony keeps the audience engaged
with suspense, waiting for the truth to be revealed to
the characters. (See video below)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RZFYuX84n1U
“Let’s Practice”
Tom has always liked Lucy, but Lucy has always thought Tom was
annoying and unattractive. One day, Lucy comes home to find an
eviction notice on her door. Apparently, her roommate had been
spending the rent money that Lucy was giving her on other things. Lucy
only has 24 hours to get all her stuff over to her mom’s house, and Lucy
doesn’t even have a car. But Tom has a truck. So Lucy calls up Tom and
asks him how he’s doing. She tells him that she’s always thought he was
funny, and that they should hang out sometime. Tom thinks that Lucy
has finally come around and is beginning to like her. He also thinks that
his jokes are funny because she is laughing after everything that he says.
Which literary technique is exemplified in this passage?
A. Situational Irony
B. Dramatic Irony
C. Verbal Irony
“Let’s Practice”
Tom has always liked Lucy, but Lucy has always thought Tom was
annoying and unattractive. One day, Lucy comes home to find an
eviction notice on her door. Apparently, her roommate had been
spending the rent money that Lucy was giving her on other things. Lucy
only has 24 hours to get all her stuff over to her mom’s house, and Lucy
doesn’t even have a car. But Tom has a truck. So Lucy calls up Tom and
asks him how he’s doing. She tells him that she’s always thought he was
funny, and that they should hang out sometime. Tom thinks that Lucy
has finally come around and is beginning to like her. He also thinks that
his jokes are funny because she is laughing after everything that he says.
Which literary technique is exemplified in this passage?
A. Situational Irony
B. Dramatic Irony
C. Verbal Irony
“Let’s Practice”
The rapper Eminem is well-known for his song writing ability, but he is
equally known for his shockingly profane and obscene lyrical
content. Eminem has made a fortune selling his curse filled songs to
millions of children around the world. But, on a 60 Minutes interview,
Eminem claimed that there was no swearing in his own home and that
his children were not allowed to play music with curse words, including
his own tracks.
Which literary technique is exemplified in this passage?
A. Situational Irony
B. Dramatic Irony
C. Verbal Irony
“Let’s Practice”
The rapper Eminem is well-known for his song writing ability, but he is
equally known for his shockingly profane and obscene lyrical
content. Eminem has made a fortune selling his curse filled songs to
millions of children around the world. But, on a 60 Minutes interview,
Eminem claimed that there was no swearing in his own home and that
his children were not allowed to play music with curse words, including
his own tracks.
Which literary technique is exemplified in this passage?
A. Situational Irony
B. Dramatic Irony
C. Verbal Irony
Persuasive Techniques
(see pg. 539 in PH Literature for more information
on persuasive devices)
Persuasive techniques are devices that authors and speakers use to influence
the audience/reader to agree with an argument. Good persuasive writing and
speeches present evidence clearly, concisely, and logically for the reader/
listener.
Persuasive Techniques can be presented in the following persuasive
techniques:
o
Anecdotal Evidence- used to describe evidence which is usually
based on personal experience.
o
Statistical Evidence- Carefully chosen figures, statistics, or graphs that may offer
substantial support to an argument.
o
Hypothetical Questions- The author asks the audience to imagine an unreal or
supposed situation with the motive of convincing them to agree with his/her
argument.
o
Rhetorical Questions- A question is asked to which there is only one
answer: the answer that agrees with the argument of the speaker or writer.
Persuasive Techniques
Anecdotal Evidence- used to describe evidence which is usually
based on personal experience.
Anecdotes are usually short personal stories, often entertaining;
they give a human angle that engages the reader and can often
convey information. For example:
"Mrs. Ruby green of Albion reports that she waited for eight hours in the
casualty department of a large hospital before she received any attention".
Persuasive Techniques
Statistical Evidence- Carefully chosen figures, statistics, or graphs that may
offer substantial support to an argument.
Statistical Evidence may be a gallop poll, a university or government
body, or a professional speaking in his/her field of expertise are good
sources for statistical evidence. Authors and speakers may also advertise
surveys or unnamed sources to convince the audience in a similar
fashion as a commercial ad would do also.
McDonald’s signs: “Over 1 billion served”
Trident chewing gum: “4 out of 5 dentists recommend chewing
sugarless gum”
Persuasive Techniques
Hypothetical Questions- The author asks the audience to imagine an
unreal or supposed situation with the motive of convincing them to agree
with his/her argument.
Hypothetical Questions types do not actually have truthful
answers, as these situations are fictitious:
“If you could have free, unlimited service for five years from an extremely
good cook, chauffeur, or masseuse, which would you choose?”
“Would you be willing to give up half of what you now own for a pill that
would permanently change you so that one hour of sleep each day would
fully refresh you?”
Persuasive Techniques
Rhetorical Questions- The author asks the audience a question to which
there is only one answer: the answer that agrees with the writer/speaker’s
argument.
The author uses Rhetorical Questions in to convince the audience
that their opinion on an topic/argument is identical to the
author’s opinion:
“Do you want to see your wife and children out on the street in rags?”
“If your friend jumped off the bridge would you do it too?”
“Let’s Practice”
“The vegan lifestyle is one that affords a safer lifestyle in terms of
eating habits. An elderly woman residing in Newport, VA enjoyed a
hardy meal , which included a high quality cut of steak, with her
family only to find herself in critical condition at her local hospital
that night deathly ill with a common bacteria found in meat called
faecal streptococci. The woman’s body could nit build up an
immunity to the ferocious bacteria, now residing in her belly: She
died the following morning.
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning
“Let’s Practice”
“The vegan lifestyle is one that affords a safer lifestyle in terms of eating
habits. An elderly woman residing in Newport, VA enjoyed a hardy meal ,
which included a high quality cut of steak, with her family only to find
herself in critical condition at her local hospital that night deathly ill with
a common bacteria found in meat called faecal streptococci. The woman’s
body could nit build up an immunity to the ferocious bacteria, now
residing in her belly: She died the following morning.
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence (The speakers relates a “human experience” to the subject.)
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning
“Let’s Practice”
“One can conclude that there are clear health and diet benefits in
the avoidance of consumption of meat products. Would you want
to find yourself or your family members deathly ill in the hospital
with a food-born bacteria in your stomach due to the fact that you
had a slice of meat along with your family meal? ”
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning
“Let’s Practice”
“One can conclude that there are clear health and diet benefits in
the avoidance of consumption of meat products. Would you want
to find yourself or your family members deathly ill in the hospital
with a food-born bacteria in your stomach due to the fact that you
had a slice of meat along with your family meal? ”
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning (the speaker frames the question in a way that
there is an obvious answer—the answer that agrees with his view.)
D. Hypothetical Questioning
“Let’s Practice”
“Imagine you and your family enjoying a hardy dinner that included
the highest quality cut of steak purchased at your local Publix. You
later discover that the meat products you purchased and cooked for
this family meal were all contaminated with common food-born
pathogens and bacteria commonly found in meat. Also, you and
your family do not discover the disastrous situation until you are all
extremely dehydrated from excessive nausea and heaving, sitting in
the emergency waiting room of your local hospital.”
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning
“Let’s Practice”
“Imagine you and your family enjoying a hardy dinner that included the
highest quality cut of steak purchased at your local Publix. You later
discover that the meat products you purchased and cooked for this family
meal were all contaminated with common food-born pathogens and
bacteria commonly found in meat. Also, you and your family do not
discover the disastrous situation until you are all extremely dehydrated
from excessive nausea and heaving, sitting in the emergency waiting room
of your local hospital.”
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning (The speaker proposes a situation to the reader that
has not happened, or is a fictitious story in order to make a point.)
“Let’s Practice”
“The vegetarian lifestyle benefits people’s health in multiple ways.
Health and research has shown that those with diets that are free of
meat consumption are 75% less likely to get a food-born illness
than those who are consumers of meat products.”
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning
“Let’s Practice”
“The vegetarian lifestyle benefits people’s health in multiple ways.
Health and research has shown that those with diets that are free of
meat consumption are 75% less likely to get a food-born illness
than those who are consumers of meat products.”
Which persuasive technique is the speaker using in the passage above?
A. Anecdotal Evidence
B. Statistical Evidence (The speaker uses the statistic, “75% less likely…” to
convince the audience…)
C. Rhetorical Questioning
D. Hypothetical Questioning
Point of View
(see pp. 93, 199, 426, 430, 1033, 1034 PH Literature)
POINT OF VIEW is the perspective from which the story is told. The
point of view determines the information that the author includes and
how the author gives the information. There are four main points of
view—
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
Point of View
In 1st PERSON the narrator is a character in a fictional
text; the narrator is giving their personal account in a
non-fictional text. The narrator uses the pronoun I, me,
we …
“I asked Sam to help me with my mailing, and we
somehow got the project done early during the last
week of December.”
Point of View
In 3rd PERSON LIMITED the narrator is outside of the story and
knows the thoughts and feelings of NO MORE THAN ONE
character in the story.
“Once upon a time, there was a woman who discovered she
had turned into the wrong person. She fell asleep as a
young maiden. However, when she arose from sleep the
next morning, she was a frog princess. She wondered what
had happened. Her family did not recognize her. No one in
the marketplaces acknowledged her. She felt very
confused.”
Point of View
In 3rd PERSON OMNISCIENT the narrator is outside
of the story and knows the thoughts and feelings of ALL
characters in the story.
“He was hoping to himself that the teacher would not ask
for his homework. Everyone in the class sat quietly in
anxious anticipation because they knew that this was the
3rd time this week that he came to class without his
assignments.”
Point of View
(see pp. 93, 199, 426, 430, 1033, 1034 PH Literature)
The fourth author’s Point of View is the Second Person…
In 2nd PERSON the author addresses the reader directly. The second
person uses the pronouns “you,” “your,” and “yours.” Second person
is often appropriate for e-mail messages, presentations, and business
and technical writing:
“Before you go to London, remember to leave your keys under
the doormat. I’ll miss you.”
“Class, you need to be in your seats when the principal arrives.”
“Let’s Practice”
He was a little late for the afternoon session, but he went boldly into the
classroom with his bandaged knees. They were their own apology, and
the teacher nodded to him and went on with the lesson. He was
disappointed that she did not ask him any questions, so that he could tell
of his peril and of his friend. None of the other students in the room
asked him what happened to his knees.
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
“Let’s Practice”
He was a little late for the afternoon session, but he went boldly into the
classroom with his bandaged knees. They were their own apology, and
the teacher nodded to him and went on with the lesson. He was
disappointed that she did not ask him any questions, so that he could tell
of his peril and of his friend. None of the other students in the room
asked him what happened to his knees.
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited (The narrator reveals ONLY the feelings of the
boy.)
o
3rd Person Omniscient
“Let’s Practice”
“Hey, human, time to earn your pay!” Curled in a feline crouch, a silver
comlink clipped to its furry ear, the SuperCat flashed Derek a toothy
grin. Tawny fur showed through gaps in the bio construct's body armor,
and his oxygen bottle had a special nosepiece to accommodate the sabertooth upper canines, huge curved fangs whose roots ran back to the eye
sockets. Cradling a recoilless assault cannon, the SuperCat had small use
for ceremony, letting everyone call him Leo. Derek grunted, getting paid
being the least of his worries.
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
“Let’s Practice”
“Hey, human, time to earn your pay!” Curled in a feline crouch, a silver comlink
clipped to its furry ear, the SuperCat flashed Derek a toothy grin. Tawny fur
showed through gaps in the bio construct's body armor, and his oxygen bottle
had a special nosepiece to accommodate the saber-tooth upper canines, huge
curved fangs whose roots ran back to the eye sockets. Cradling a recoilless assault
cannon, the SuperCat had small use for ceremony, letting everyone call him Leo.
Derek grunted, getting paid being the least of his worries.
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient (The narrator knows the thoughts of Supercat
AND Derek—more than one character in the story, which would disqualify
the limited point of view.)
“Let’s Practice”
Every Saturday we visit Grandma. She loves to kiss me on my
forehead. Despite my being fourteen years old, she still does this as
if I am still five. I don’t mind, though. At least she still remembers
my name. She calls my older brother “Tom,” which is Dad’s name.
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
“Let’s Practice”
Every Saturday we visit Grandma. She loves to kiss me on my
forehead. Despite my being fourteen years old, she still does this as if I
am still five. I don’t mind, though. At least she still remembers my
name. She calls my older brother “Tom,” which is Dad’s name.
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person (The narrator is in the story: uses the pronouns “I,” “we,”
and “my.”)
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
“Let’s Practice”
In order to use your locker combination, you must first turn the
dial several times to the right before you stop at the first number.
Thereafter, you will turn the dial to the left, passing the second
number once. Lastly, turn the dial back to the right, stopping at the
third number the first time you get to it..
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
“Let’s Practice”
In order to use your locker combination, you must first turn the dial
several times to the right before you stop at the first number. Thereafter,
you will turn the dial to the left, passing the second number once. Lastly,
turn the dial back to the right, stopping at the third number the first time
you get to it..
What narrative point of view is used in the passage above?
o
1st Person
o
2nd Person (The author is speaking directly to the reader—using the
o
3rd Person Limited
o
3rd Person Omniscient
word “you” is also an indication of the 2nd person perspective.)
THESIS
(see pp. 426 PH Literature)
The Thesis tells the reader how the author interprets or feels towards a
subject or topic: the author’s stand. It tells the reader what to expect
from the rest of the paper. A thesis often makes a claim that others
might dispute.
NOTE: Although a thesis CANNOT exist without the main idea,
they’re not exactly the same. The main idea is simply the subject of
interest in your paper.
For example, “The Life and Presidency of Abraham Lincoln” can be
the main idea; however, this is not as arguable like the thesis statement
should be. It's simply an idea. Nonetheless, “Abraham Lincoln was
the strongest, most influential president that the United States has
ever had.”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=t7GgCINEf
m8
THEME
(see pp. 6, 8, 1030, 1032, 1034 PH Literature)
The THEME is the life lesson of a story or the author’s message
about human nature or the human experience. The theme is the
central message of a literary work (typically fiction) that is not stated
directly but is implied or suggested throughout the actions and
details of the story*.
There are several common universal themes:
“Money can’t buy happiness.”
“Don’t judge people based on the surface.”
“It is better to die free than live under tyranny.
THEME
(see pp. 6, 8, 1030, 1032, 1034 PH Literature)
*NOTE: As with thesis, a theme is NO”T simply the main idea of
the story. Main ideas in literature may tell you what the story is
about explicitly (clearly & directly stated), but THEMES in literature
must be implied, suggested, and/or inferred (not directly stated).
Example:
In the children’s story “Three Little Pigs,” the main idea could
be described this way: Three pigs who build their own houses of
three different materials, only to be harassed by an angry wolf.
(…All of which are expressed and stated directly and explicitly in the story)
The THEME of “Three Little Pigs” can be described this way:
Hard work pays off in the end. (…None of which is stated directly in
the story)
“Let’s Practice”
Read the selection, and then answer the questions in the following slide—you will need to
come back to this slide to refer to the text before choosing your answer.
"Sea Fever” by John Masefield
I must down to the seas again, to the
lonely sea and the sky,
And all I ask is a windy day with the
white clouds flying,
And the flung spray and the blown
And all I ask is a tall ship and a star to spume, and the sea-gulls crying.
steer her by,
I must down to the seas again, to the
And the wheel's kick and the wind's
vagrant gypsy life,
song and the white sail's shaking,
To the gull's way and the whale's way,
And a gray mist on the sea's face, and a where the wind's like a whetted knife;
gray dawn breaking.
And all I ask is a merry yarn from a
I must down to the seas again, for the laughing fellow-rover,
call of the running tide
And quiet sleep and a sweet dream
Is a wild call and a clear call that may when the long trick's over.
not be denied;
“Let’s Practice”
What is the theme, or message, the author expresses in this poem?
a.
Hard work never hurt anyone.
b.
The simple things in life may be the best.
c.
Everyone should learn to sail.
d.
There should be freedom for all people.
What words are repeated to point out the theme?
a.
and the
b.
to the seas
c.
all I ask
d. I must down
“Let’s Practice”
What is the theme, or message, the author expresses in this poem?
a.
Hard work never hurt anyone.
b.
The simple things in life may be the best.
c.
Everyone should learn to sail.
d.
There should be freedom for all people.
What words are repeated to point out the theme?
a.
and the
b.
to the seas
c.
all I ask
d. I must down
“Let’s Practice”
Humans, unlike many other animals, are omnivores. We require both
vegetable matter and meat to be fully healthy (although some humans manage
to survive reasonably healthily whilst consuming no animal products at all, finding
their protein mainly in nuts and seeds). To carry out its many complicated
functions, the human body requires different chemicals and substances. All
of the nutrition we take in can be put in one of seven categories. These are;
carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, minerals, vitamins, fats and water.
Carbohydrates provide the body with energy. Proteins allow the body to
repair itself and grow. Fiber aids the digestive system. Minerals and
vitamins are required for many reasons. Deficiencies in any vitamin or
mineral can lead to illnesses. Vitamins are essential for normal growth and
development. Fats are often unnecessary, and many are bad for you. The
body does not need to take in most fats, but the fatty acids omega-3 and
omega-6 are necessary. The body is around 70% water. If water is not
consumed, the body will dehydrate. The body loses water in excretion,
sweating and breathing. It is advised that you should have a balanced diet,
taking in food from each of the food groups, in proportion.
Which sentence is the best thesis statement for an essay about the passage above?
Which sentence is the best thesis statement for an essay about
the previous passage?
Humans, unlike many other animals, are omnivores. We require both
vegetable matter and meat to be fully healthy .
All of the nutrition we take in can be put in one of seven categories.
To carry out its many complicated functions, the human body
requires different chemicals and substances.
Which sentence is the best thesis statement for an essay about
the previous passage?
Humans, unlike many other animals, are omnivores. We require both
vegetable matter and meat to be fully healthy .
All of the nutrition we take in can be put in one of seven categories.
To carry out its many complicated functions, the human body
requires different chemicals and substances. (This is the best answer
because the majority of the passage explains how the various chemicals and
substances— “protein, …fiber, …minerals” aid in various digestive and
immunity functions for your body.)
Author’s TONE
(see pp. 430, 441, 441, 445, 453, 608 PH Literature)
The author’s TONE is the author’s attitude towards the text or towards
the audience. Tone may described in several ways—serious, playful, sarcastic,
harsh, etc.
The tone in a story can be joyful, serious, humorous, sad, threatening,
formal, informal, pessimistic, and optimistic.
The tone can change very quickly, or may remain the same throughout
the story. Tone is expressed by your use of syntax, your point of view, your
diction, and the level of formality in your writing.
Examples of tone in a story include just about any adjective you can
imagine:
--Scared, --Anxious, --Excited, --Worried, --Foolish, --Smart, --Depressing …
(See http://learnzillion.com/lessons/1988-evaluate-an-authors-word-choice-to-anticipate-tone for more on TONE)
Author’s
TONE
(see pp. 430, 441, 441, 445, 453, 608 PH Literature)
Tone in writing is conveyed by both the choices of words and
the narrator of the story.
Consider the tone of The School by Donald Barthelme. Here,
words like "death" and "depressing" set a negative or unhappy
tone:
And the trees all died. They were orange trees. I don’t know why they
died, they just died. Something wrong with the soil possibly or maybe
the stuff we got from the nursery wasn’t the best. We complained
about it. So we’ve got thirty kids there, each kid had his or her own
little tree to plant and we’ve got these thirty dead trees. All these kids
looking at these little brown sticks, it was depressing.
Author’s
TONE
(see pp. 430, 441, 441, 445, 453, 608 PH Literature)
In contrast, in Charlotte's Web, although the book is sad, the tone is one of peace and
acceptance:
But I feel peaceful. Your success in the ring this morning was, to a small degree, my success. Your
future is assured. You will live, secure and safe, Wilbur. Nothing can harm you now. These
autumn days will shorten and grow cold. The leaves will shake loose from the trees and fall.
Christmas will come, and the snows of winter. You will live to enjoy the beauty of the frozen
world, for you mean a great deal to Zuckerman and he will not harm you, ever. Winter will pass,
the days will lengthen, the ice will melt in the pasture pond. The song sparrow will return and
sing, the frogs will awake, the warm wind will blow again. All these sights and sounds and smells
will be yours to enjoy, Wilbur—this lovely world, these precious days…”
In A River Runs Through It, loss is also addressed with a kind of acceptance. The tone
here is a bit wistful, yet peaceful and moving towards acceptance nonetheless.
This was the last fish we were ever to see Paul catch. My father and I talked about this moment
several times later, and whatever our other feelings, we always felt it fitting that, when we saw
him catch his last fish, we never saw the fish but only the artistry of the fisherman.
Author’s
STYLE
(see pp. 441, 453, 461 PH Literature)
The author’s STYLE is his/her way of using language. It has much to
do with the author’s diction (choice of words and phrases ), syntax (
sentence structure; arrangement of phrases and clauses), and tone (his/her
feelings and/or attitude towards the text or the audience).
An author’s use of words and sentence structures may be described as
formal or informal, technical or ordinary, sophisticated or conversational, etc.
Examples:
--Earnest Hemingway - minimalistic dialogue, masculine bias with a particular
gritty ambiance.
--Jane Austin – Femininity, naivety, gossipy dialogue.
--Edgar Allan Poe - Gothic, detective, speculative, a bit on the grotesque.
Author’s
PURPOSE
(see pp. 4, 7, 118, 426, 429 PH Literature)
PURPOSE:
Ask Yourself These Questions
(see pp. 4, 7, 118, 426, 429 PH Literature)
“Let’s Practice”
Read the selection, and then answer the questions that follow (next slide).
(1) Julia and Marissa moved into a small New York apartment, hoping to start
careers as fashion designers. Other people in the building were also artists, and
quite friendly. When winter came, many of them suffered with colds and flu, and
several, including Julia, were caught in the grip of pneumonia.
(2) The illness made it hard for Julia to breathe. She slept a lot and when she was
awake, she sat quietly in a chair, staring out the window and sighing. The constant
struggle sapped her will to live and she refused the food Marissa fixed for her.
Finally, Marissa asked the doctor if Julia would ever get better. He hesitated, then
said, "Her only chance is to want to get better. The human body's a wonderful
thing … it can heal, but we must help it by believing that it will. I'm afraid that
without a change of heart, she won't make it.”
(10) Later, when Julia had greatly improved, Marissa whispered, "I need to tell you
that … Johann has pneumonia. The super found him in the rain a few days ago.
He'd just painted an oak leaf on that tree … because the last leaf had fallen."
(11) "Oh, Marissa," cried Julia. "He saved my life by making me want to be strong
like the leaf and live. Now we must do something for him." And so they did.
“Let’s Practice”
1.What is the overall tone of the
selection?
3. What is the author's overall style?
a. angry
a.
friendly
comical
b.
mocking
c. mysterious
c.
playful
d. emotional
d.
b.
2. What is the tone of the last paragraph?
a.
frightening
b.
hopeful
c.
irritated
d.
comical
creepy
“Let’s Practice”
1.What is the overall tone of the
selection?
3. What is the author's overall style?
a. angry
a.
friendly
comical
b.
mocking
c. mysterious
c.
playful
d. emotional
d.
b.
2. What is the tone of the last paragraph?
a.
frightening
b.
hopeful
c.
irritated
d.
comical
creepy
“Let’s Practice”
Read the selection, and then answer the questions that follow (next slide).
(1) Many power plants use fossil fuels, like coal and oil, to produce electricity.
They formed more than millions of years ago from the remains of ancient
plants and animals and can't be replaced … unless we want to wait million of
years more! So it's crucial to use electricity wisely. You can help. Look for these
and other places where electricity's being wasted … then stop wasting it!
Close the refrigerator door quickly.
Let your hair dry naturally!
Run a dishwasher or washing machine only when full.
Turn off lights when not in use.
Unplug TVs, DVD players, and other appliances that have clocks when
not in use—they continue to draw energy to display time, even when
switched off!
Unplug phone chargers when not in use—they draw small amounts of
energy all the time if you don't!
“Let’s Practice”
What is the tone of the selection?
a. comical
b. serious
c. disrespectful
d. mysterious
Part of the author's style includes the use of
a. words in parenthesis ( ).
b. very short sentences.
c. ellipses( … ).
d. foreign words.
“Let’s Practice”
What is the tone of the selection?
a. comical
b. serious
c. disrespectful
d. mysterious
Part of the author's style includes the use of
a. words in parenthesis ( ).
b. very short sentences.
c. ellipses( … ).
d. foreign words.
Imagery
(see pp. 608, 610, 613, 676, 678, 679, 683, 684 PH Literature)
IMAGERY means to use figurative language to represent objects,
actions and ideas in such a way that it appeals to our PHYSICAL
SENSES:
It was dark and dim in the forest. –visual images/sight
The children were screaming and shouting in the fields. - hearing or auditory
He whiffed the aroma of brewed coffee. –smell or olfactory sense.
The girl ran her hands on a soft satin fabric. –touch or tactile sense.
The fresh and juicy orange are very cold and sweet. –taste or gustatory sense.
The word imagery is associated with mental pictures; however, this idea is
but partially correct. The MORE PHYSICAL SENSES evoked in a
sentence, the more the sentence is considered as containing VIVID
IMAGERY or SENSORY DETAILS.
“Let’s Practice”
Which statement below uses the best vivid imagery (sensory details)?
a.
The yellow leaves fell softly unto the withering grass as the wind
blew gallantly about the trees.
b.
We watched the little puppies play in the field chasing one another
round and round barking loudly and rolling in the grass.
c.
I heard the thunder rumble loudly as my baby sister grabbed my
hand tightly. We watched to crackling lightening through the
drapes while Mother made hot spice tea to calm us down.
“Let’s Practice”
Which statement below uses the best vivid imagery (sensory details)?
a.
The yellow leaves fell softly unto the withering grass as the wind
blew gallantly about the trees.
b.
We watched the little puppies play in the field chasing one another
round and round barking loudly and rolling in the grass.
c.
I heard the thunder rumble loudly as my baby sister grabbed my
hand tightly. We watched to crackling lightening through the
drapes while Mother made hot spice tea to calm us down.
Alliteration vs. Assonance
(see pp. 891, 1126, 1137 PH Literature)
Assonance is the repetition of vowel
Alliteration is derived from a Latin
sounds in words that
are close to
“Latira” means “letters of alphabet” It
is a stylistic device in which a number each other - this also includes diphthongs.
Like alliteration, it is the sound rather than
of words occur close together in a
the letter used that is important.
series, having the same first consonant
sound.
"Hear the mellow wedding bells" by
Consider the following examples:
But a better butter makes a batter
better.
Always take time to tell the TRUTH!
Edgar Allen Poe
"Try to light the fire"
"I lie down by the side fo my
bride"/"Fleet feet sweep by sleeping
geese"/"Hear the lark and harden to
the barking of the dark fox gone to
ground" by Pink Floyd
"It's hot and it's monotonous." by
Sondheim
“Let’s Practice”
Which literary device is exemplified in the lines below:
Hannah’s home has heat, hopefully.
a.
Alliteration
b.
Assonance
Which literary device is exemplified in the lines below:
"If I bleat when I speak it's because I just got . . . fleeced."
a.
Alliteration
b.
Assonance
“Let’s Practice”
Which literary device is exemplified in the lines below:
Hannah’s home has heat, hopefully.
a.
Alliteration
b.
Assonance
Which literary device is exemplified in the lines below:
"If I bleat when I speak it's because I just got . . . fleeced."
a.
Alliteration
b.
Assonance
To “…Imply; Suggest”
IMPLY is defined as to suggest or express something indirectly or to
involve something naturally. Imply means "to indicate without stating
directly" or "to suggest or express indirectly.” (Verb)
What is the author implying or suggesting below?
Gary Knoles volunteers in his community every weekend. He takes
good care of his family. While on vacation with his family, he once
stopped to give a homeless person a ride to the bus station, which
caused his family to take a 45 min detour from their travel plans. He
never misses a game or a school play in which his children are involved.
Colons, Semicolons, & Commas:
A Final Thought
http://youtu.be/KUwN4qvHAwo
( For more on semi colons: http://www.quickanddirtytips.com/education/grammar/howto-use-semicolons )
Comma Splice
For example, an independent clause is something that could
stand on its own—essentially a sentence:
Aardvark enjoys fishing.
If you want to splice together two independent clauses, you
aren’t supposed to use a comma. It’s not strong enough. Doing
so is the error called a comma splice:
Aardvark enjoys fishing, Squiggly chooses a different lake for their
vacation every year. [That’s a comma splice error because the
comma is joining two independent clauses.]
If you want to join two independent clauses, you can use a
semicolon:
Aardvark enjoys fishing; Squiggly chooses a different lake for their
vacation every year.
You can use commas and conjunctions: Aardvark enjoys fishing,
so Squiggly chooses a different lake for their vacation every year.
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