Greek 1001 Elementary Greek

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Ancient Greek for Everyone:
A New Digital Resource for
Beginning Greek
as taught at
Louisiana State University
Spring 2013
Albert Watanabe
Unit 17: Participles
Elementary Greek
This class (someday, Month ##, 2013)
AGE Unit 17: Participles
• You have learned verbs in the indicative and infinitive mood.
• Unit 12 presented adjectives.
• This unit presents a hybrid of verbs and adjectives, known as
the participle.
Elementary Greek
Verb
person
number
tense
mood
voice
Adjective
Participle
number
gender
case
tense
mood
voice
number
gender
case
Elementary Greek
PARTICIPLE
verb stem + participle marker + adjective ending
tense of verb
meaning of verb
voice of verb
mood = participle
number of subject
gender of subject
case of subject
Elementary Greek
Participles
Greek participles are both
• verbs which modify their subjects using
adjective endings (instead of using personal
endings to indicate their subject)
AND
• adjectives which describe a noun as involved in a
verbal action
Elementary Greek
Participles
•
•
After the indicative mood, participles are the second
most common mood in Greek.
In general, nearly a third of Greek verbs appear in
participle form.
Elementary Greek
Participles exist in the
1. Present tense
2. Future tense
3. Aorist tense
Participles use the same stem in each tense that the
verb uses in the indicative or infinitive moods.
Participles exist in both active and middle voices, but
they use different markers for each voice.
Elementary Greek
Participles
All participles in the active voice use
– the marker -ντ- between the stem and adjective ending
– 3rd declension endings for the masculine and neuter
– 1st declension endings for the feminine
(-ᾰ- in the Nominative and Accusative singular)
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
The pattern for present active participles is
present stem + ντ + –ς –σα –ν
For -ω verbs, the combination with thematic vowel yields
–ων –ουσα –ον
• One of the most common and useful participles is the
present active participle of εἰμί “be”
• The masculine forms will be familiar from the noun ἄρχων,
ἄρχοντος ὁ “ruler” in Unit 3. In fact, this word is actually a
participle that was used so much it was also used as a noun.
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
present participle active of εἰμί “be”
masculine forms
singular
Nom. ὤν
Gen. ὄντος
Dat. ὄντι
Acc. ὄντα
plural
Nom. ὄντες
Gen. ὄντων
Dat. οὖσι
Acc. ὄντας
nom. sg.: οντς  ονς  ων
dat. pl.: οντσι  ονσι  ουσι
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
present participle active of εἰμί “be”
feminine forms
singular
Nom. οὖσα
Gen. οὔσης
Dat. οὔσῃ
Acc. οὖσαν
plural
Nom. οὖσαι
Gen. οὐσῶν
Dat. οὔσαις
Acc. οὔσας
These are the same endings used by
δόξα –ης ἡ “glory, judgment, opinion” in Unit 8
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
present participle active of εἰμί “be”
neuter forms
singular
Nom. ὄν
Gen. ὄντος
Dat. ὄντι
Acc. = nom.
plural
Nom. ὄντα
Gen. ὄντων
Dat. οὖσι
Acc. = nom.
nom. sg.: οντ  ον
dat. pl.: οντσι  ονσι  ουσι
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
For -ω verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending:
masculine forms
singular
Nom. λύων
Gen. λύοντος
Dat. λύοντι
Acc. λύοντα
plural
Nom. λύοντες
Gen. λυόντων
Dat. λύουσι
Acc. λύοντας
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
For -ω verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending:
feminine forms
singular
Nom. λύουσα
Gen. λυούσης
Dat. λυούσῃ
Acc. λύουσαν
plural
Nom. λύουσαι
Gen. λυουσῶν
Dat. λυούσαις
Acc. λυούσας
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
For -ω verbs, simply add ὤν, οὖσα, ὄν as an ending:
neuter forms
singular
Nom. λῦον
Gen. λύοντος
Dat. λύοντι
Acc. = nom.
plural
Nom. λύοντα
Gen. λυόντων
Dat. λύουσι
Acc. = nom.
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when
forming participles, e.g., φιλέω.
Nom. αἱρῶν (αἱρέων) αἱροῦσα (αἱρέουσα) αἱροῦν (αἱρέον)
Gen. αἱροῦντος (αἱρέοντος) αἱρούσης (αἱρέουσης)
κτλ.
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when
forming participles, e.g., τιμάω.
Nom. ἐρωτῶν (ἐρωτάων) ἐρωτῶσα (ἐρωτάουσα) ἐρωτῶν (ἐρωτάον)
Gen. ἐρωτῶντος (ἐρωτάοντος) ἐρωτώσης (ἐρωτάουσης)
κτλ.
Elementary Greek
The present active participle
Contract verbs follow the normal rules of contraction when
forming participles, e.g., δηλόω.
Nom. δηλῶν (δηλόων) δηλοῦσα (δηλόουσα) δηλοῦν (δηλόον)
Gen. δηλοῦντος (δηλόοντος) δηλούσης (δηλοούσης)
κτλ.
Elementary Greek
Present active participles
•
•
•
•
•
•
λαβ  λαμβαν-  λαμβάνων, λαμβάνουσα, λάμβανον
δείκνυμι  δεικνύς δεικνῦσα δεικνύν
δίδωμι  διδούς διδοῦσα διδόν
τίθημι  τιθείς τιθεῖσα τιθέν
ἵστημι  ἱστάς ἱστᾶσα ἱστάν
ἵημι  ἱείς ἱεῖσα ἱέν
Elementary Greek
The future active participle
To form the future active participle,
add ων, ουσα, ον to the future stem (= stem + σ):
present: λύων, λύουσα, λῦον
future: λύσων, λύσουσα, λῦσον
Recall that all verbs are -ω verbs in the future tense.
Elementary Greek
The aorist active participle
To form the aorist active participle,
if the verb has a 1st (weak) aorist:
to the verb’s stem, add –σα– + -ντ- + -ς –σα –ν
 λύσας λύσασα λῦσαν
λύσαντος λυσάσης λύσαντος κτλ.
Hint:
This is the same pattern as πᾶς πᾶσα πᾶν.
Remember: only the indicative has an augment,
so the participle has no augment.
Elementary Greek
The aorist active participle
To form the aorist active participle,
if the verb has a 2nd (strong) aorist:
to the verb’s stem, add –ών –οῦσα –όν
 λαβών, λαβοῦσα, λαβόν
λαβόντος λαβούσης λαβόντος κτλ.
Note that the accent does not recede to the stem.
Remember: only the indicative has an augment,
so the participle has no augment.
Elementary Greek
Aorist active participles
•
•
•
•
•
λαβ  λαβών, λαβοῦσα, λαβόν
δί-δωμι  δούς δοῦσα δόν
τί-θημι  θείς θεῖσα θέν
ἵ-στημι  στάς στᾶσα στάν
ἵ-ημι
 εἵς εἷσα ἕν
For each of these –μι verbs, the aorist active participle is identical with the
present active participle except for the reduplication in the present:
(διδούς/δούς , τιθείς/θείς , ἱστάς/στάς, ἱείς/εἵς).
Elementary Greek
Aorist intransitive/passive participle
• Recall that the marker -θη- means an aorist is intransitive or
passive (Unit 13). In the participle, the -η- shortens to -ε• Thus the pattern is: stem + θε + ντ + –ς –σα –ν.
• The result is -είς –εῖσα –έν (nominative singular endings)
 λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν
λυθέντος λυθείσης λυθέντος κτλ.
Remember, only the indicative has an augment,
so the participle has no augment.
Elementary Greek
Aorist intransitive/passive participle
The result is -είς –εῖσα –έν (nominative singular endings)
 λυθεῖς λυθεῖσα λυθέν
λυθέντος λυθείσης λυθέντος κτλ.
Hint: this is similar to the present active except -ε- in place of -ο-.
Hint: this is identical to the aorist active participle
of τίθημι (θείς θεῖσα θέν).
Remember, only the indicative has an augment,
so the participle has no augment.
Elementary Greek
• Summary of active participles
– Present: present stem + ντ + –ς –σα –ν
• -ω verbs = present stem + –ων –ουσα –ον
– Future: stem + σ + –ων –ουσα –ον
– Aorist:
• 1st (weak) = stem + σα + ντ + –ς –σα –ν
• 2nd (strong) = stem + –ών –οῦσα –όν
• Passive (intransitive) = stem + θε + ντ + –ς –σα –ν.
Elementary Greek
Middle participles
• All participles in the middle voice have the marker -μεν-.
• All participles in the middle voice use –ος –η –ον endings.
• In other words, wherever the personal ending (or infinitive
ending) would be, substitute:
–μενος –μένη –μενον
Elementary Greek
Middle participles
•
•
•
•
λυόμενος λυομένη λυόμενον (present)
λυσόμενος λυσομένη λυσόμενον (future)
λυσάμενος λυσαμένη λυσάμενον (aorist)
λαβομένος λαβομένη λαβομένον (aorist)
• Note that the accent remains fixed on the -μεν- marker.
•
•
•
•
•
δεικνύμενος -η -ον (present)
διδόμενος -η –ον (present), δόμενος -η –ον (aorist)
τιθέμενος -η -ον (present), θέμενος -η –ον (aorist)
ἱστάμενος -η -ον (present)
ἱέμενος -η -ον (present), ἕμενος -η –ον (aorist)
Elementary Greek
•
As of this Unit, you have encountered all the words
and forms on Master List of Greek Nouns
Adjectives Pronouns.
Elementary Greek
Participles
Greek participles are both
• verbs which modify their subjects using
adjective endings (instead of using personal
endings to indicate their subject)
AND
• adjectives which describe a noun as involved in a
verbal action
Elementary Greek
Participles
A participle has two basic functions:
• Attributive, when a definite article precedes it.
• In this use, the participle is primarily an adjective.
• Circumstantial, when no article precedes it.
• In this use, the participle is primarily a verb.
Elementary Greek
Participles
A participle has two basic functions:
• Attributive, when a definite article precedes it.
• In this use, the participle is primarily an adjective.
• The participle can refer to a specific person or persons doing
the action or to the whole class of people who perform this
action.
• οἱ ἄνδρες φεύγουσιν. The men flee.
• οἱ φεύγοντες ἄνδρες... The men who flee…
• οὐ τιμῶμεν τοὺς ἐκ τῆς μάχης φεύγοντας.
We do not honor men who flee from battle.
Elementary Greek
Participles
A participle has two basic functions:
• Circumstantial, when no article precedes it.
• In this use, the participle is primarily a verb.
• The participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction.
• Although a participle almost never has its own conjunction,
Greek verbs are, as we have seen, always linked, so a
conjunction should be supplied in translation.
Elementary Greek
Participles
A participle has two basic functions
• Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The
participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction.
• τρέχομεν. λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους.
• We are running. We catch the horses.
• τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους.
We are running and we catch the horses.
When we are running, we catch the horses.
Because we are running, we catch the horses.
Although we are running, we catch the horses.
Elementary Greek
Participles
A participle has two basic functions
• Circumstantial, when no article precedes it. The
participle now replaces a verb and a conjunction.
• τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους.
If we are running, we catch the horses.
Since we are running, we catch the horses.
While we are running, we catch the horses.
As long as we are running, we catch the horses.
κτλ.
Elementary Greek
Participles
Make sure you translate the subject of the participle correctly.
• λαμβάνομεν τρέχοντες τοὺς ἵππους.
We catch the horses, while we are running.
• λαμβάνομεν τρέχοντας τοὺς ἵππους.
We catch the horses, while they are running.
Elementary Greek
Participles
The present participle refers to action happening at the
same time as the main verb:
τρέχοντες λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους.
While we are running, we catch the horses.
τρέχοντες ἐλαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους.
While we were running, we caught the horses.
Elementary Greek
Participles
The negative for a participle is normally οὐ:
οὐ τρέχοντες ἐλαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους.
Although we were not running, we caught the horses.
Elementary Greek
Participles
For generic attributive participles, however, the negative is μή:
λαμβάνομεν τοὺς μὴ τρέχοντας ἵππους.
We catch horses that do not run.
For circumstantial participles expressing a negative condition,
the negative is μή:
λαμβάνομεν τοὺς ἵππους μὴ τρέχοντας.
We catch horses, if they are not running.
Elementary Greek
Participles
The future active participle refers to action after the main verb:
λαμβάνομεν φεύγοντας τοὺς ἵππους.
We catch the horses, while they are running away.
present participle
λαμβάνομεν φεύξοντας τοὺς ἵππους.
We catch the horses, while they are about to run away.
future participle
Elementary Greek
Participles
In practice, the future active participle often expresses purpose:
ἐτρέχομεν διώξοντες τοὺς ἵππους.
We were running, when we were about to chase the horses.
We were running, in order to chase the horses.
Elementary Greek
Participles
The aorist participle often refers to action prior to another verb.
• λαβόντες οἱ ἄνθρωποι τοὺς ἵππους, ἤγαγον οἴκαδε.
After the men captured the horses, they led them home.
Τhe men captured the horses, before they led them home.
Elementary Greek
The Genitive Absolute
•
•
•
You have seen how often Greek chains verbs together by
making one or more of the verbs participles.
Participles always modify their subjects, so a participle
modifies whatever noun is its subject.
If the subject-noun is not part of a sentence already,
however, the problem arises: what case should the noun
and participle be?
Elementary Greek
The Genitive Absolute
•
•
In this situation, there is sort of a default setting. If the
subject-noun of the participle is not part of the main
sentence, then both this noun and the participle by
default go into the genitive case, called the Genitive
Absolute (< Latin absolutus “cast off”).
Translate the clause like any other circumstantial
participle, but the Genitive case has no particular
meaning in this construction.
Elementary Greek
The Genitive Absolute
•
For example:
ἀφίκοντο μὲν οἱ πολέμιοι, ἐκ δὲ τῆς πόλεως ἐλείπομεν.
The enemy arrived, but we were already leaving the city.
ἀφικομένων τῶν πολεμίων ἐκ τῆς πόλεως ἐλείπομεν.
When the enemy arrived,
we were already leaving the city.
Elementary Greek
• Next class (someday, Month ##, 2013)
– Classical reading
– Biblical reading
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