animal farm and macbeth - Mrsjgibbs

GCSE English Literature:
Shakespeare and English
Literary Heritage
Macbeth and Animal Farm
Controlled Assessment Task:
'Conflict leads to destruction.' To what extent is this true of
Macbeth and Animal Farm?
Controlled Assessment
• You are required to write an essay linking Macbeth
and Animal Farm. The theme is ‘conflict’.
• Controlled Assessment word guide: 2000 words
written in up to four hours. We expect to use no
more than three hours.
• You may have a clean copy of each text with you
during the Controlled Assessment.
• This is worth 25% of your English Literature Grade.
Assessment Objectives
• AO1: respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select
and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support
• AO2: explain how language, structure and form contribute
to writers’ presentations of ideas, themes and settings
• AO3: explain links between texts, evaluating writers’
different ways of expressing meaning and achieving results
• AO4: relate texts to their social, cultural and historical
contexts; explain how texts have been influential and
significant to self and other readers in different contexts and
at different times
Every Lesson Matters
• We have a limited amount of time to cover these texts.
• Any missed lessons will impact your chances of achieving your
target grade. It is YOUR responsibility to catch up!
• Each practice paragraph we write can be used in your coursework.
It is important that you complete these to ensure you get plenty of
• Use the blog for access to resources used in lessons.
• Complete the grade booster activities – they are designed to be
done independently.
• Complete Takeaway Homework tasks to enhance your
understanding of the texts and develop your skills.
Lesson 1 Macbeth
LO: To establish a context for Macbeth AO4
• In pairs, complete the worksheet: If The Crime Fits…
An Evaluation
• Be ready to discuss your decisions in 5 minutes.
• In groups, create a mindmap of everything you remember
about Macbeth.
• Try to include characters, plot and themes branches.
• For an extra challenge, try to include something about the
historical context (AO4) of the play.
• After 2 minutes, rotate the mindmaps and add to/challenge
or extend the information on your neighbours’ mindmap.
• Repeat until you receive your original mindmap. Review the
changes with your group.
• Share one thing that you had forgotten with the class.
The Protestant
Martin Luther, a German monk,
thought the Catholic Church was
unfair and corrupt. (1557)
• He believed the Bible should be
produced in the vernacular
(language or dialect spoken by
ordinary people)
• He believed that ‘forgiveness’
should not be sold by Priests
and Monks
• He believed people should be
able to access and understand
their religion.
Think: do you
agree or disagree
with this idea?
Religious conflict
- Henry VIII did not initially
agree with any of this and many
Englishmen were burned at the
stake for heresy if they helped
spread Luther’s ideas or
translated parts of the Bible.
- However, in order to divorce
Katherine of Aragon, Henry
VIII created the Church of
England (1533) which resulted
in most of Luther’s suggestions
taking place anyway.
Think: should
you change the
rules just to get
what you want?
Protestant vs catholic
• Under Henry’s children Edward, Mary and Elizabeth,
England’s religion changed from Protestant to Catholic
and back. Punishments for heresy and witchcraft
Heresy: opinion or doctrine at variance with the orthodox or accepted
doctrine, especially of a church or religious system
Witchcraft & torture
- James I claimed the throne in 1603.
In 1604 he pronounced that torture
was necessary to elicit confessions
from witches. Macbeth was written
around 1604-1606. James I was
Shakespeare’s patron.
- Shakespeare’s plays were performed
in front of the monarch of the time,
so he would have to be aware of the
new King’s feelings on the topic of
• Read the worksheet about King James and witchcraft.
• Answer the 5 questions to consolidate your
understanding of the historical context of Macbeth.
• Extra Challenge: how might you relate this knowledge
to your CCA? Is there anything particularly relevant to
your essay?
All resources are available at:
Meeting the witches
• Act 1 Scene 1 of Macbeth – meeting the witches.
• Shakespeare presents three witches meeting in the
middle of a storm and preparing to entice Macbeth to
• Their riddling rhymes show that they use supernatural
powers. (AO2 Language)
• Write a paragraph about why Shakespeare chose to
open the play in this way.
• Try to remember to meet the AOs (don’t forget
language and context)
• Use PEE+E
• Focus on accurate SPaG
Things you could have included:
• It would have appealed to King James’ beliefs about witches.
Remember, he thought they were real.
• It immediately grabs our attention by its dramatic non-realism.
• It establishes the importance of supernatural powers in the play.
• It provides an initial clue about the key theme of good vs evil.
• Extra Challenge: what does the final couplet tell us about the
• Key quote: ‘Fair is foul and foul is fair.’ Start a quote bank in
your book to collect quotes for your essay.
Grade Booster
• The witches also appear in Act 1 Scene 3 and Act 4
Scene 1. Investigate the witches further. Focus on
Shakespeare’s idea that witchcraft turns the world
upside down.
• As we continue to study link with other examples of
where Shakespeare gives the idea that what seems to
be reality proves not to be. Keep a note of these as they
are an example of conflict.
Lesson 2 macbeth
LO: to explore the presentation of conflict as a theme in Act 1 scene 2
• What important qualities should a man have?
• Discuss with a partner and compile a list of your top
five qualities e.g. handsome, sense of humour, loyal,
strong, etc.
• Read Act 1 Scene 2. You can also refer to the
worksheet: Report of the Battle.
• Find and note down as many descriptions of Macbeth
as you can.
• Write a short summary of the scene in your own
• How is Macbeth presented?
• How is conflict presented?
check your summary
• King Duncan receives news that the battle against the
rebel Macdonwald was evenly balanced, but that
Macbeth has beaten him.
• Reinforcements from the King of Norway attack
Macbeth and Banquo.
• Duncan hears that, through the courage of Macbeth,
his army has won.
• Duncan declares that the traitor Thane of Cawdor is to
be executed and Macbeth is to receive his title and
lands as a reward.
Thane = lord
• Write a paragraph about the glorification of conflict
and bravery in Act 1 Scene 2. How this will affect
Macbeth’s view of conflict?
• Extra challenge: Notice that Shakespeare uses
dramatic irony (AO2) to explore the distinction of
what appears to be so and what actually is. Look at
Duncan’s comment that he will not be deceived by the
Thane of Cawdor anymore (lines 66-67). Why is this
• Find three quotations from Act 1 Scene 2 that glorify
conflict/praise Macbeth for his violence. Add these to
your quote bank in your books.
Grade Booster
• Contrast the differences that Shakespeare shows us
between Banquo and Macbeth. Make a table or notes
in your book of relevant quotations that you can add to
as we continue to study the text.
• Both are brave, but how different are their fates and
reputations by the end of the play? Think about this in
relation to your CCA.
Lesson 3 macbeth
LO: To understand the significance of Macbeth’s soliloquy in Act 1 Scene 7
and explore the theme of internal conflict
The great debate
• Read Act 1 Scene 7 to end of soliloquy. Place the
arguments into the correct order.
Why is this scene
• Shakespeare shows us a man wrestling with his own conscience –
the choice of evil was not inevitable or easy for Macbeth.
• One major theme of the play- Macbeth’s ambition – is stated
overtly in this scene.
• Shakespeare portrays Macbeth’s vulnerability to accusations of
cowardice and lack of manliness.
• Lady Macbeth establishes her full share of responsibility for what
is to unfold.
• The idea that one murder will be sufficient – Macbeth’s earlier
hope – is already (ironically) undermined by Lady Macbeth’s
immediate plan to implicate the guards.
Mr & Mrs
• Create a table in your books and note what we learn
about the character of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in
the rest of this scene.
• Extra challenge: What is Macbeth’s fatal weakness?
• Write a paragraph about how Shakespeare shows
Macbeth’s internal conflict.
• Add these Key quotes to your quote bank:
‘I have no spur/To prick the sides of my intent, but
only/Vaulting ambition.’
‘False face must hide what the false heart doth know.’
Find three other quotes to show Macbeth’s inner
Grade Booster
• You have been given a sheet of key spellings and
vocabulary to include in your writing for top grades.
Try to learn these and start using them as soon as
Lesson 4 macbeth
LO: To analyse quotations for evidence of internal conflict in Act 2 Scene 2
and use to improve the structure of paragraph writing
• Write a set of success criteria for an analytical
• Discuss and compare this with a partner.
Quotation analysis
• You will be shown a list of quotations from Act 2
Scene 2 after the murder of Duncan.
• Analyse each of the quotations for evidence of inner
• What do we learn about Macbeth and Lady Macbeth
from their reactions to the murder?
• Extra challenge: consider how each line might be
delivered by the actor.
LM: Had he not resembled / My father as he slept, I had done’t.
M: I could not say ‘Amen’ when they did say ‘God bless us’.
LM: Consider it not so deeply.
M: I had most need of blessing, and ‘Amen’ stuck in my throat.
LM: These deeds must not be thought / After these ways; so it will
make us mad.
LM: “You do unbend your noble strength to think so brainsickly of
LM: Go, get some water, and wash this filthy witness from your
M: A little water clears us of this deed: how easy it is, then!
• Lady Macbeth is braver than her husband.
• Macbeth is immediately troubled by his actions.
• Lady Macbeth feels that they are in control of their
own futures.
• Macbeth is weak and unstable.
Key Quote
• " Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood
clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather
the multitudinous seas incarnadine, making the
green one red ”
• Add this to your quote bank.
• Extra challenge: What will be the effect of Macbeth’s
Practice Paragraph
• Write a paragraph about the inner conflict (guilt) in
Act 2 Scene 2.
• Extra challenge: consider the destruction of sanity
Check your paragraph against your success criteria and mine!:
• Structure: use PEE+E. Do not begin or end a paragraph
with a quotation.
• Embed quotations, use single quotation marks, copy them
accurately using / for line splits and referencing accurately:
e.g. Act 1 Sc 2 Ln 67-9.
• Use accurate punctuation.
• Use key vocabulary and accurate spelling.
• Meet objectives.
Lesson 5 macbeth
LO: To focus on marital conflict and guilt in Act 3 Scene 2 through
independent study.
Independent learning
Today you can work independently on the following tasks:
• Finish or improve any missing practice paragraphs or DITs
• Analyse Act 3 Scene 2 finding evidence of:
1. Lady Macbeth's changed attitudes towards their actions;
2. Signs of their relationship breaking down
3. Macbeth's envy of dead Duncan;
4. Macbeth shows some feeling for his wife.
Hand in book at the end of the lesson with today’s work clearly dated
Lesson 6 macbeth
LO: To revise key language terms (AO2)
To focus on Act 3 Scene 4 (Banquo’s ghost) and conflict leading to loss of
Iambic Pentameter
“Macbeth, Macbeth, Macbeth, beware Macduff ”
• Copy these lines and add . and / to show the iambic
pentameter pattern
No more that Thane of Cawdor shall deceive
So foul and fair a day I have not seen
You know your own degrees; sit down: at first
What is iambic
If you have
forgotten, try to
work it out…
Blank Verse
•Blank verse is the name given to work written in iambic
pentameter and without rhyme. It was the primary form
of speech in Shakespearian drama.
•Shakespeare did not adhere strictly to the rules – if it
made the speech better he would slightly alter the iambic
pentameter pattern.
•The final two lines of a speech or scene in blank verse
often rhyme – this is a 'capping couplet’.
Focus: AO2 Language
Why does it matter how character’s
speak? Brainstorm ideas.
• Shakespeare gives his audience clues about his characters
through their language; audiences at the time were more
aware of the conventions of dramatic speech and would
recognise whether a character spoke in verse or prose.
• Macbeth and Lady Macbeth speak in blank verse which is
often associated with royal or noble characters.
• The witches speak in rhyming couplets, emphasising their
supernatural, mysterious qualities and allowing their speech
to contain riddle-like qualities.
• A change in the way a character speaks can signal a change in
their mental state.
Banquo’s ghost
• We will watch two versions of this scene. Notice how
they differ. Try to consider why the directors have
made these dramatic choices.
• Discuss how Lady Macbeth attempts to regain control
of the banquet in the face of Macbeth's actions.
• Remember AO2 is language, structure and form all
are used to express the writer’s ideas and themes.
Make a list
of these…
Irony, rhyme, riddles
foreshadow, metaphor,
grandiose language,
simple language, violent
imagery, animal
imagery, colour
alliteration, repitition
What happens when?
Beginning, middle,
end. High and low
action, tension,
Eg: tragedy,
5 Acts,
blank verse,
Meeting AO2
• This scene shows the Macbeths at a highpoint in their careers.
• This scene ironically foreshadows the future as Banquo’s ghost
occupies Macbeth’s seat and his son will take his throne: ‘push us
from our stools’ (line 82)
• It marks the beginning of the decline of Macbeth’s rule and
power through the destructive nature of inner conflict (guilt vs
• The supernatural theme is reintroduced.
• It exploits dramatic tension.
• Structurally this is the middle point of the play
• Write analytical paragraphs about Macbeth's continued
inner conflict and how it leads to loss of sanity in this
• EXTRA Challenge: try to make a link or comparison
with Animal Farm!
Lesson 7 macbeth
LO: To focus on Act 4 Scene 1 and explore how Macbeth’s ambition leads
to his destruction
The fault in our stars
Consider your own faults. What effect do they have on
• EG: stubbornness may lead you to refuse help from
people. This, in turn, may mean that you do not meet
your full potential.
• Make a list of Macbeth’s faults… what effect do they
Act 3 Sc 5
• The three witches and the goddess of witchcraft,
Hecate prepare a strong spell for deluding Macbeth.
• Why do you think this scene is important?
Close analysis
• As Macbeth has just been planning to go and meet the
witches in the previous scene, and now they prepare to
meet him, what effect will this have on the audience?
• Macbeth is describes as a ‘wayward son’ (line 11) Why
does Shakespeare do this?
Text Focus
• Act 4 Scene 1 The Witches prophesy three things to
• As we read, note down the 3 prophesies.
• note down adjectives to describe Macbeth
Macbeth’s fallibility
• What are the three pieces of information given to
Macbeth about his own infallibility?
• What information is given about Banquo?
• What has this got to do with James I? (AO4)
Practice PEE+E
• Choose one of the following to write a PEE+E
paragraph about:
• 1. How unnatural the three witches are.
• 2. How Macbeth has become master of his own fate.
• 3. How Shakespeare creates dramatic tension by
showing Macduff ’s escape.
• 4. The irony of the prophesies.
Extra challenge: focus on language (AO2)
• Conflict always leads to destruction
• Conflict can sometimes be a bad thing
• Conflict is sometimes a good thing
• Conflict is always a good thing
Text Focus:
Act 4 Scene 3
• Malcolm and Macduff plan to overthrow Macbeth
• Watch Act 4 Scene 3. Discuss plans to overthrow
Macbeth in context of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Although seeking to bring peace and resolution, have
these conflicts also led to destruction?
• Are these conflicts necessary?
Why is this scene
• We see the fear and suspicion created by Macbeth’s reign in
Scotland has spread to England.
• Shakespeare provides a number of key ideas of what it means to
be king.
• This talking scene is static but Shakespeare creates dramatic
tension by depicting Malcolm playing his game with Macduff,
and showing Ross reluctant to reveal the truth to Macduff.
• Shakespeare sets up and helps us anticipate the final conflict
between Macbeth and Macduff.
• It provides a balance to the pure evil of scenes 1 and 2 in Act 4,
visiting the witches and the terrible murder if the Macduffs. More
normal emotions and reactions are now being depicted.
Practice Quotation
• ‘Fair is foul and foul is fair’ Act 1 Sc 1
• ‘Brave Macbeth (well he deserves that name)’ Act 1 Sc 2
• ‘Thou wouldst be great -/ Art not without ambition, but
without / The illness should attend it.’ (LM about M) Act 1
Scene 5
• ‘I have no spur /To prick the sides of my intent, but only /
vaulting ambition’ Act 1 Sc 7
• ‘Macbeth shall sleep no more!’ Act 2 Sc 2
• ‘For mine own good / All causes shall give way.’ Act 3 Sc 4
Lesson 8 macbeth
LO: To explore the theme of madness so that we can discuss how conflict
can lead to a loss of sanity
Act 5 Scene 1:
Lady Macbeth’s Madness
• We will do some close analysis of Lady Macbeth. Use
the text to help you find the answers to the questions
on the sheet.
• Complete for homework
• Practice PEE+E: How conflict has led to a loss of
sanity. Comment on the change in her from Act 1 Sc 5
to now.
Conflict approaches
• Read Act 5 Scene 3. Confirmation of Lady Macbeth’s
destruction – consider Macbeth's reaction to news of
her death.
• Look at how the apparitions' warnings come to fruition
and how Macbeth's attitude changes as the realisation
of the witches' duplicity (remember their predictions
were ironic and he has been tricked) sinks in.
• Macbeth’s refusal to admit defeat - could he prevent
destruction at this point if he backs away from final
Lesson 10 macbeth
LO: To consolidate understanding of characters and plot and consider the
theme of conflict
• Complete the character card sort activity.
• Complete the comic strip of the plot.
Act 5 Scene 7
• Macbeth has been destroyed by conflict but has
• Consider the future of Scotland – has this final conflict
brought definite peace?
• Extra challenge: thinking about whether this conflict
is any different from the first we saw in Act 1 Scene 2.
Planning your essay
• Mind map all the different types of conflict in the play.
• Add the consequences of each
• Add key quotes
• AO2 Language, structure and form
• AO4 Context
Homework: re-read chapter 1
Lesson 11 animal farm
LO: To understand how Animal Farm Links to Macbeth through context
and pre-reading activities
Context AO4
• Read through W1 Russian History Context.
• Socialism = a political system where wealth is divided
among all people, not just the rich
• Communism = an economic system whereby wealth
was divided and all men were supposedly equal
• Utopia = a perfect world of harmony amongst men
Communism & cows
How can you explain Communism using cows?
About The Book
First published 1945
A critique of Socialist politics and
Communist ideology in the
Soviet Union (USSR)
Although published well before
the dismantling of the USSR in
1990-91, the novel does
accurately depict the future
destruction of the Utopian ideal
Create your own
• Each pair/trio has a question. Please discuss this and
answer in a full sentence. Be ready to read your
sentence out to the rest of the class.
Your utopia
• Now that you’ve considered things, write a description
of your Utopia. It can be on a small scale (i.e. just
within school) or a large scale (a whole society)
• As a class you
must agree on
principles of
Homework: re-read chapter 2
Lesson 12 animal farm
LO: To explore how Orwell establishes character
Tweet it @mrsjgibbs
You have 150 characters to summarise the story of
Animal Farm.
• Find and analyse the rhetorical
techniques in Old Major’s speech. What
techniques is he using? What is the effect
of these?
• What attitude to conflict is displayed in chapter
• Use PEE+E. Include AO2 and AO4
Chapter 1
• Why did Mr Jones forget to shut the popholes?
• What was Old Major’s exhibition name?
• What are the three dogs called?
• What are the two horses called?
• What would Benjamin rather have instead of a
Chapter 1
• How is Mollie’s mane decorated?
• Who does Old Major blame for all animals’
• What will Jones do with Boxer when he dies?
• What do the animals decide about rats?
• What came to Old Major in his dream?
Homework: re-read chapter 3
Lesson 13 animal farm
LO: To explore the theme of conflict in chapter 2 and find evidence that it
leads to either redemption or destruction.
Chapter 2
• What happened to Old Major three nights later?
• Which animals are the cleverest?
• What are the names of the three main pigs?
• What two things does Mollie want to keep after the
• Which newspaper does Mr Jones read?
Chapter 2
• What is the first thing the animals do once they’ve
completed the Rebellion?
• What item of clothing does Boxer destroy?
• Whose picture hangs over the mantelpiece in the
• What does Snowball write on the wall of the barn?
• What happens to the milk?
Find evidence in Chapter Two to suggest:
a) Conflict will lead to redemption and liberty
b) Conflict will lead to destruction
Extra challenge: How can this episode be compared with
AO2 language analysis
“In a very little while the animals had destroyed
everything that reminded them of Mr Jones.”
“All the animals carped with joy when they saw the
whips going up in flames.”
“The reins, the halters, the blinkers, the degrading
nosebags were thrown onto the rubbish fire which was
burning in the yard.”
Practice paragraph
• Write one – two paragraphs summarising both the
events and the key ideas in Chapter Two of ‘Animal
Homework: re-read chapter 5
Lesson 14 animal farm
LO: to explore how Orwell presents conflict in Chapter Four -The glorification
of conflict (Battle of the Cow-Shed)
CH 3 recap: If this is the answer
what’s the question?
• The animals harvest the hay faster than Mr Jones had ever
done it.
• ‘I will work harder!’
• Sundays
• It was always the pigs
• Snowball
• The alphabet
• four legs good, two legs bad
• the pigs
Finding evidence
• Find evidence to support the idea that conflict is
necessary and a good thing. Discuss and look at the
end of the chapter to analyse how the animals look
back on their battle.
Practice paragraph
• Write a brief paragraph making links between Macbeth
and Animal Farm and how conflict is presented in the
• Use comparative language:
both, similarly, furthermore, however
Homework: re-read chapter 6
Lesson 15 animal farm
LO: to understand the context of dictatorship and tyranny – conflict between
who are they?
• What do they have in common?
• Orwell was opposed to Communism and wrote
‘Animal Farm’ as a warning.
• Find and analyse quotations that suggest tyranny is
beginning to take hold. Analyse these in pairs then
feed back. Eg:
AO2 point: The narrator approaches the tyranny of the pigs very casually:
“Squealer spoke so persuasively, and the three dogs who happened to be with him
growled so threateningly, that they accepted his explanation without further
Gives fair reason first before giving second,
more dangerous reason
They don’t ‘believe’ –
they just have to
• What does Clover accuse Mollie of ?
• Which animal is first to leave Animal Farm?
• What do the sheep keep bleating?
• What do the animals plan to build, which is a source
of contention on the farm?
• Why does Snowball leave the farm?
• How will decisions about the farm now be made?
• What maxim does Boxer now adopt?
• What happens to Old Major’s skull?
• How long is the building of the windmill expected to
• What two reasons are given for the animals believing
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