GCSE English Literature: Shakespeare and English Literary Heritage Macbeth and Animal Farm Controlled Assessment Task: 'Conflict leads to destruction.' To what extent is this true of Macbeth and Animal Farm? Controlled Assessment • You are required to write an essay linking Macbeth and Animal Farm. The theme is ‘conflict’. • Controlled Assessment word guide: 2000 words written in up to four hours. We expect to use no more than three hours. • You may have a clean copy of each text with you during the Controlled Assessment. • This is worth 25% of your English Literature Grade. Assessment Objectives • AO1: respond to texts critically and imaginatively; select and evaluate relevant textual detail to illustrate and support interpretations • AO2: explain how language, structure and form contribute to writers’ presentations of ideas, themes and settings • AO3: explain links between texts, evaluating writers’ different ways of expressing meaning and achieving results • AO4: relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts; explain how texts have been influential and significant to self and other readers in different contexts and at different times Every Lesson Matters • We have a limited amount of time to cover these texts. • Any missed lessons will impact your chances of achieving your target grade. It is YOUR responsibility to catch up! • Each practice paragraph we write can be used in your coursework. It is important that you complete these to ensure you get plenty of practice. • Use the blog for access to resources used in lessons. • Complete the grade booster activities – they are designed to be done independently. • Complete Takeaway Homework tasks to enhance your understanding of the texts and develop your skills. Lesson 1 Macbeth LO: To establish a context for Macbeth AO4 Do • In pairs, complete the worksheet: If The Crime Fits… An Evaluation • Be ready to discuss your decisions in 5 minutes. Review • In groups, create a mindmap of everything you remember about Macbeth. • Try to include characters, plot and themes branches. • For an extra challenge, try to include something about the historical context (AO4) of the play. • After 2 minutes, rotate the mindmaps and add to/challenge or extend the information on your neighbours’ mindmap. • Repeat until you receive your original mindmap. Review the changes with your group. • Share one thing that you had forgotten with the class. The Protestant Reformation Martin Luther, a German monk, thought the Catholic Church was unfair and corrupt. (1557) • He believed the Bible should be produced in the vernacular (language or dialect spoken by ordinary people) • He believed that ‘forgiveness’ should not be sold by Priests and Monks • He believed people should be able to access and understand their religion. Think: do you agree or disagree with this idea? Why? Religious conflict - Henry VIII did not initially agree with any of this and many Englishmen were burned at the stake for heresy if they helped spread Luther’s ideas or translated parts of the Bible. - However, in order to divorce Katherine of Aragon, Henry VIII created the Church of England (1533) which resulted in most of Luther’s suggestions taking place anyway. Think: should you change the rules just to get what you want? Protestant vs catholic • Under Henry’s children Edward, Mary and Elizabeth, England’s religion changed from Protestant to Catholic and back. Punishments for heresy and witchcraft varied. Heresy: opinion or doctrine at variance with the orthodox or accepted doctrine, especially of a church or religious system Witchcraft & torture - James I claimed the throne in 1603. In 1604 he pronounced that torture was necessary to elicit confessions from witches. Macbeth was written around 1604-1606. James I was Shakespeare’s patron. - Shakespeare’s plays were performed in front of the monarch of the time, so he would have to be aware of the new King’s feelings on the topic of witchcraft. HINGE • Read the worksheet about King James and witchcraft. • Answer the 5 questions to consolidate your understanding of the historical context of Macbeth. • Extra Challenge: how might you relate this knowledge to your CCA? Is there anything particularly relevant to your essay? All resources are available at: www.mrsjgibbs.wordpress.com Meeting the witches • Act 1 Scene 1 of Macbeth – meeting the witches. • Shakespeare presents three witches meeting in the middle of a storm and preparing to entice Macbeth to evil. • Their riddling rhymes show that they use supernatural powers. (AO2 Language) Apply • Write a paragraph about why Shakespeare chose to open the play in this way. • Try to remember to meet the AOs (don’t forget language and context) • Use PEE+E • Focus on accurate SPaG Check Things you could have included: • It would have appealed to King James’ beliefs about witches. Remember, he thought they were real. • It immediately grabs our attention by its dramatic non-realism. • It establishes the importance of supernatural powers in the play. • It provides an initial clue about the key theme of good vs evil. • Extra Challenge: what does the final couplet tell us about the witches? • Key quote: ‘Fair is foul and foul is fair.’ Start a quote bank in your book to collect quotes for your essay. Grade Booster • The witches also appear in Act 1 Scene 3 and Act 4 Scene 1. Investigate the witches further. Focus on Shakespeare’s idea that witchcraft turns the world upside down. • As we continue to study link with other examples of where Shakespeare gives the idea that what seems to be reality proves not to be. Keep a note of these as they are an example of conflict. Picture this! Lesson 2 macbeth LO: to explore the presentation of conflict as a theme in Act 1 scene 2 Do • What important qualities should a man have? • Discuss with a partner and compile a list of your top five qualities e.g. handsome, sense of humour, loyal, strong, etc. Learn • Read Act 1 Scene 2. You can also refer to the worksheet: Report of the Battle. • Find and note down as many descriptions of Macbeth as you can. Hinge • Write a short summary of the scene in your own words. • How is Macbeth presented? • How is conflict presented? check your summary • King Duncan receives news that the battle against the rebel Macdonwald was evenly balanced, but that Macbeth has beaten him. • Reinforcements from the King of Norway attack Macbeth and Banquo. • Duncan hears that, through the courage of Macbeth, his army has won. • Duncan declares that the traitor Thane of Cawdor is to be executed and Macbeth is to receive his title and lands as a reward. Thane = lord apply • Write a paragraph about the glorification of conflict and bravery in Act 1 Scene 2. How this will affect Macbeth’s view of conflict? • Extra challenge: Notice that Shakespeare uses dramatic irony (AO2) to explore the distinction of what appears to be so and what actually is. Look at Duncan’s comment that he will not be deceived by the Thane of Cawdor anymore (lines 66-67). Why is this ironic? check • Find three quotations from Act 1 Scene 2 that glorify conflict/praise Macbeth for his violence. Add these to your quote bank in your books. Grade Booster • Contrast the differences that Shakespeare shows us between Banquo and Macbeth. Make a table or notes in your book of relevant quotations that you can add to as we continue to study the text. • Both are brave, but how different are their fates and reputations by the end of the play? Think about this in relation to your CCA. Picture this! Lesson 3 macbeth LO: To understand the significance of Macbeth’s soliloquy in Act 1 Scene 7 and explore the theme of internal conflict The great debate • Read Act 1 Scene 7 to end of soliloquy. Place the arguments into the correct order. Why is this scene important? • Shakespeare shows us a man wrestling with his own conscience – the choice of evil was not inevitable or easy for Macbeth. • One major theme of the play- Macbeth’s ambition – is stated overtly in this scene. • Shakespeare portrays Macbeth’s vulnerability to accusations of cowardice and lack of manliness. • Lady Macbeth establishes her full share of responsibility for what is to unfold. • The idea that one murder will be sufficient – Macbeth’s earlier hope – is already (ironically) undermined by Lady Macbeth’s immediate plan to implicate the guards. Mr & Mrs • Create a table in your books and note what we learn about the character of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in the rest of this scene. • Extra challenge: What is Macbeth’s fatal weakness? apply • Write a paragraph about how Shakespeare shows Macbeth’s internal conflict. Check • Add these Key quotes to your quote bank: ‘I have no spur/To prick the sides of my intent, but only/Vaulting ambition.’ ‘False face must hide what the false heart doth know.’ Find three other quotes to show Macbeth’s inner conflict. Grade Booster • You have been given a sheet of key spellings and vocabulary to include in your writing for top grades. Try to learn these and start using them as soon as possible. Picture this! Lesson 4 macbeth LO: To analyse quotations for evidence of internal conflict in Act 2 Scene 2 and use to improve the structure of paragraph writing Do • Write a set of success criteria for an analytical paragraph. • Discuss and compare this with a partner. Quotation analysis • You will be shown a list of quotations from Act 2 Scene 2 after the murder of Duncan. • Analyse each of the quotations for evidence of inner conflict. • What do we learn about Macbeth and Lady Macbeth from their reactions to the murder? • Extra challenge: consider how each line might be delivered by the actor. Quotations LM: Had he not resembled / My father as he slept, I had done’t. M: I could not say ‘Amen’ when they did say ‘God bless us’. LM: Consider it not so deeply. M: I had most need of blessing, and ‘Amen’ stuck in my throat. LM: These deeds must not be thought / After these ways; so it will make us mad. LM: “You do unbend your noble strength to think so brainsickly of things. LM: Go, get some water, and wash this filthy witness from your hand. M: A little water clears us of this deed: how easy it is, then! Hinge • Lady Macbeth is braver than her husband. • Macbeth is immediately troubled by his actions. • Lady Macbeth feels that they are in control of their own futures. • Macbeth is weak and unstable. Key Quote • " Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather the multitudinous seas incarnadine, making the green one red ” • Add this to your quote bank. • Extra challenge: What will be the effect of Macbeth’s guilt? Practice Paragraph • Write a paragraph about the inner conflict (guilt) in Act 2 Scene 2. • Extra challenge: consider the destruction of sanity Check Check your paragraph against your success criteria and mine!: • Structure: use PEE+E. Do not begin or end a paragraph with a quotation. • Embed quotations, use single quotation marks, copy them accurately using / for line splits and referencing accurately: e.g. Act 1 Sc 2 Ln 67-9. • Use accurate punctuation. • Use key vocabulary and accurate spelling. • Meet objectives. Lesson 5 macbeth LO: To focus on marital conflict and guilt in Act 3 Scene 2 through independent study. Independent learning Today you can work independently on the following tasks: • Finish or improve any missing practice paragraphs or DITs • Analyse Act 3 Scene 2 finding evidence of: 1. Lady Macbeth's changed attitudes towards their actions; 2. Signs of their relationship breaking down 3. Macbeth's envy of dead Duncan; 4. Macbeth shows some feeling for his wife. Hand in book at the end of the lesson with today’s work clearly dated Lesson 6 macbeth LO: To revise key language terms (AO2) To focus on Act 3 Scene 4 (Banquo’s ghost) and conflict leading to loss of sanity Iambic Pentameter . / . / . / . / . / “Macbeth, Macbeth, Macbeth, beware Macduff ” • Copy these lines and add . and / to show the iambic pentameter pattern No more that Thane of Cawdor shall deceive So foul and fair a day I have not seen You know your own degrees; sit down: at first What is iambic pentameter? If you have forgotten, try to work it out… Blank Verse •Blank verse is the name given to work written in iambic pentameter and without rhyme. It was the primary form of speech in Shakespearian drama. •Shakespeare did not adhere strictly to the rules – if it made the speech better he would slightly alter the iambic pentameter pattern. •The final two lines of a speech or scene in blank verse often rhyme – this is a 'capping couplet’. Focus: AO2 Language Why does it matter how character’s speak? Brainstorm ideas. Picture this! • Shakespeare gives his audience clues about his characters through their language; audiences at the time were more aware of the conventions of dramatic speech and would recognise whether a character spoke in verse or prose. • Macbeth and Lady Macbeth speak in blank verse which is often associated with royal or noble characters. • The witches speak in rhyming couplets, emphasising their supernatural, mysterious qualities and allowing their speech to contain riddle-like qualities. • A change in the way a character speaks can signal a change in their mental state. Banquo’s ghost • We will watch two versions of this scene. Notice how they differ. Try to consider why the directors have made these dramatic choices. • Discuss how Lady Macbeth attempts to regain control of the banquet in the face of Macbeth's actions. AO2 • Remember AO2 is language, structure and form all are used to express the writer’s ideas and themes. Make a list of these… Irony, rhyme, riddles foreshadow, metaphor, grandiose language, simple language, violent imagery, animal imagery, colour connotation, alliteration, repitition What happens when? Beginning, middle, end. High and low action, tension, resolution. Foreshadow. Eg: tragedy, 5 Acts, soliloquy, dialogue, iambic pentameter, blank verse, rhyming couplets Meeting AO2 • This scene shows the Macbeths at a highpoint in their careers. • This scene ironically foreshadows the future as Banquo’s ghost occupies Macbeth’s seat and his son will take his throne: ‘push us from our stools’ (line 82) • It marks the beginning of the decline of Macbeth’s rule and power through the destructive nature of inner conflict (guilt vs ambition) • The supernatural theme is reintroduced. • It exploits dramatic tension. • Structurally this is the middle point of the play Apply • Write analytical paragraphs about Macbeth's continued inner conflict and how it leads to loss of sanity in this scene. • EXTRA Challenge: try to make a link or comparison with Animal Farm! Lesson 7 macbeth LO: To focus on Act 4 Scene 1 and explore how Macbeth’s ambition leads to his destruction The fault in our stars Consider your own faults. What effect do they have on you? • EG: stubbornness may lead you to refuse help from people. This, in turn, may mean that you do not meet your full potential. • Make a list of Macbeth’s faults… what effect do they have? Act 3 Sc 5 • The three witches and the goddess of witchcraft, Hecate prepare a strong spell for deluding Macbeth. • Why do you think this scene is important? Close analysis • As Macbeth has just been planning to go and meet the witches in the previous scene, and now they prepare to meet him, what effect will this have on the audience? • Macbeth is describes as a ‘wayward son’ (line 11) Why does Shakespeare do this? Text Focus • Act 4 Scene 1 The Witches prophesy three things to Macbeth • As we read, note down the 3 prophesies. • note down adjectives to describe Macbeth Macbeth’s fallibility • What are the three pieces of information given to Macbeth about his own infallibility? • What information is given about Banquo? • What has this got to do with James I? (AO4) Practice PEE+E • Choose one of the following to write a PEE+E paragraph about: • 1. How unnatural the three witches are. • 2. How Macbeth has become master of his own fate. • 3. How Shakespeare creates dramatic tension by showing Macduff ’s escape. • 4. The irony of the prophesies. Extra challenge: focus on language (AO2) Agree/disagree? • Conflict always leads to destruction • Conflict can sometimes be a bad thing • Conflict is sometimes a good thing • Conflict is always a good thing Text Focus: Act 4 Scene 3 • Malcolm and Macduff plan to overthrow Macbeth • Watch Act 4 Scene 3. Discuss plans to overthrow Macbeth in context of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although seeking to bring peace and resolution, have these conflicts also led to destruction? • Are these conflicts necessary? Why is this scene important? • We see the fear and suspicion created by Macbeth’s reign in Scotland has spread to England. • Shakespeare provides a number of key ideas of what it means to be king. • This talking scene is static but Shakespeare creates dramatic tension by depicting Malcolm playing his game with Macduff, and showing Ross reluctant to reveal the truth to Macduff. • Shakespeare sets up and helps us anticipate the final conflict between Macbeth and Macduff. • It provides a balance to the pure evil of scenes 1 and 2 in Act 4, visiting the witches and the terrible murder if the Macduffs. More normal emotions and reactions are now being depicted. Practice Quotation analysis • ‘Fair is foul and foul is fair’ Act 1 Sc 1 • ‘Brave Macbeth (well he deserves that name)’ Act 1 Sc 2 • ‘Thou wouldst be great -/ Art not without ambition, but without / The illness should attend it.’ (LM about M) Act 1 Scene 5 • ‘I have no spur /To prick the sides of my intent, but only / vaulting ambition’ Act 1 Sc 7 • ‘Macbeth shall sleep no more!’ Act 2 Sc 2 • ‘For mine own good / All causes shall give way.’ Act 3 Sc 4 Lesson 8 macbeth LO: To explore the theme of madness so that we can discuss how conflict can lead to a loss of sanity Act 5 Scene 1: Lady Macbeth’s Madness • We will do some close analysis of Lady Macbeth. Use the text to help you find the answers to the questions on the sheet. • Complete for homework • Practice PEE+E: How conflict has led to a loss of sanity. Comment on the change in her from Act 1 Sc 5 to now. Conflict approaches • Read Act 5 Scene 3. Confirmation of Lady Macbeth’s destruction – consider Macbeth's reaction to news of her death. • Look at how the apparitions' warnings come to fruition and how Macbeth's attitude changes as the realisation of the witches' duplicity (remember their predictions were ironic and he has been tricked) sinks in. • Macbeth’s refusal to admit defeat - could he prevent destruction at this point if he backs away from final conflict? Lesson 10 macbeth LO: To consolidate understanding of characters and plot and consider the theme of conflict Do • Complete the character card sort activity. Task • Complete the comic strip of the plot. Act 5 Scene 7 • Macbeth has been destroyed by conflict but has Scotland? • Consider the future of Scotland – has this final conflict brought definite peace? • Extra challenge: thinking about whether this conflict is any different from the first we saw in Act 1 Scene 2. Planning your essay • Mind map all the different types of conflict in the play. • Add the consequences of each • Add key quotes • AO2 Language, structure and form • AO4 Context Homework: re-read chapter 1 Lesson 11 animal farm LO: To understand how Animal Farm Links to Macbeth through context and pre-reading activities Context AO4 • Read through W1 Russian History Context. • Socialism = a political system where wealth is divided among all people, not just the rich • Communism = an economic system whereby wealth was divided and all men were supposedly equal • Utopia = a perfect world of harmony amongst men Communism & cows How can you explain Communism using cows? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3SWZEawf8ag About The Book First published 1945 A critique of Socialist politics and Communist ideology in the Soviet Union (USSR) Although published well before the dismantling of the USSR in 1990-91, the novel does accurately depict the future destruction of the Utopian ideal Create your own society • Each pair/trio has a question. Please discuss this and answer in a full sentence. Be ready to read your sentence out to the rest of the class. Your utopia • Now that you’ve considered things, write a description of your Utopia. It can be on a small scale (i.e. just within school) or a large scale (a whole society) 1. • As a class you must agree on SEVEN fundamental principles of Utopia. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Homework: re-read chapter 2 Lesson 12 animal farm LO: To explore how Orwell establishes character Tweet it @mrsjgibbs You have 150 characters to summarise the story of Animal Farm. AO2 • Find and analyse the rhetorical techniques in Old Major’s speech. What techniques is he using? What is the effect of these? conflict • What attitude to conflict is displayed in chapter 1? • Use PEE+E. Include AO2 and AO4 Chapter 1 • Why did Mr Jones forget to shut the popholes? • What was Old Major’s exhibition name? • What are the three dogs called? • What are the two horses called? • What would Benjamin rather have instead of a tail? Chapter 1 • How is Mollie’s mane decorated? • Who does Old Major blame for all animals’ problems? • What will Jones do with Boxer when he dies? • What do the animals decide about rats? • What came to Old Major in his dream? Homework: re-read chapter 3 Lesson 13 animal farm LO: To explore the theme of conflict in chapter 2 and find evidence that it leads to either redemption or destruction. Chapter 2 • What happened to Old Major three nights later? • Which animals are the cleverest? • What are the names of the three main pigs? • What two things does Mollie want to keep after the revolution? • Which newspaper does Mr Jones read? Chapter 2 • What is the first thing the animals do once they’ve completed the Rebellion? • What item of clothing does Boxer destroy? • Whose picture hangs over the mantelpiece in the farmhouse? • What does Snowball write on the wall of the barn? • What happens to the milk? conflict Find evidence in Chapter Two to suggest: a) Conflict will lead to redemption and liberty b) Conflict will lead to destruction Extra challenge: How can this episode be compared with ‘Macbeth’? AO2 language analysis “In a very little while the animals had destroyed everything that reminded them of Mr Jones.” “All the animals carped with joy when they saw the whips going up in flames.” “The reins, the halters, the blinkers, the degrading nosebags were thrown onto the rubbish fire which was burning in the yard.” Practice paragraph • Write one – two paragraphs summarising both the events and the key ideas in Chapter Two of ‘Animal Farm’ Homework: re-read chapter 5 Lesson 14 animal farm LO: to explore how Orwell presents conflict in Chapter Four -The glorification of conflict (Battle of the Cow-Shed) CH 3 recap: If this is the answer what’s the question? • The animals harvest the hay faster than Mr Jones had ever done it. • ‘I will work harder!’ • Sundays • It was always the pigs • Snowball • The alphabet • four legs good, two legs bad • the pigs Finding evidence • Find evidence to support the idea that conflict is necessary and a good thing. Discuss and look at the end of the chapter to analyse how the animals look back on their battle. Practice paragraph • Write a brief paragraph making links between Macbeth and Animal Farm and how conflict is presented in the texts. • Use comparative language: both, similarly, furthermore, however Homework: re-read chapter 6 Lesson 15 animal farm LO: to understand the context of dictatorship and tyranny – conflict between leaders who are they? • What do they have in common? • Orwell was opposed to Communism and wrote ‘Animal Farm’ as a warning. • Find and analyse quotations that suggest tyranny is beginning to take hold. Analyse these in pairs then feed back. Eg: AO2 point: The narrator approaches the tyranny of the pigs very casually: “Squealer spoke so persuasively, and the three dogs who happened to be with him growled so threateningly, that they accepted his explanation without further questions.” Gives fair reason first before giving second, more dangerous reason They don’t ‘believe’ – they just have to ‘accept’ • What does Clover accuse Mollie of ? • Which animal is first to leave Animal Farm? • What do the sheep keep bleating? • What do the animals plan to build, which is a source of contention on the farm? • Why does Snowball leave the farm? • How will decisions about the farm now be made? • What maxim does Boxer now adopt? • What happens to Old Major’s skull? • How long is the building of the windmill expected to take? • What two reasons are given for the animals believing Squealer?