Unit 9 Nouns Ms. Smith 7th Grade Language Arts Unit 9 Nouns I. Kinds of Nouns A. A noun names a person, place, thing, or idea. B. A proper noun names a specific person, place, thing, or idea. 1. Examples: Thomas Edison; Naples, Florida; Monday. C. A common noun names any person, place, thing, or idea. 1. Examples: inventor, city, day. D. A concrete noun names things you can see or touch. 1. Examples: desk, house, girl, boy. E. An abstract noun names ideas qualities or feelings that cannot be seen or touched. 1. Examples: love, knowledge, friendship, kindness. F. Compound nouns are made up of two or more words. 1. Written as one word. Example: hometown. 2. Written as two words. Example: dining room. 3. Written hyphenated. Example: runner-up. G. Possessive Nouns – name who or what owns or has something. They can be common or proper. 1. Examples: Miko’s book is about inventions. 2. Can be formed in one of two ways. 3. To form the possessive of most singular nouns, add an apostrophe and –s (‘s). Examples: girl’s coat, Wichita’s population. 4. To form a possessive of a singular noun already ending in –s, you add an apostrophe and an s (‘s). Examples: Alexis’s book, Joseph Ives’s clock. 5. For plural nouns ending in –s, only add an apostrophe (‘). Example: boys’ shoes, the Wrights’ plane. 6. For plural nouns not ending in –s, add an apostrophe and s (‘s). Example: children’s toys, women’s organization. H. Distinguishing Plurals, Possessives, and Contractions 1. Plural nouns and possessive nouns both end with the letter –s. 2. They sound alike, but their spelling and meanings are different. 3. Plural nouns do not have apostrophes (‘). 4. Apostrophes are used when letters have been left out in a contraction. a. b. c. Can’t = can not Don’t = do not Shouldn’t = should not 5. A contraction is a word made by combining two words into one and leaving out letters. a. b. Example: Tyler’s going to the museum. Tyler’s means Tyler is. I. Collective Nouns name a group of individuals. They can have a singular meaning or a plural meaning. 1. If you are speaking about a group as a unit, the noun has a singular meaning. When the collective noun has a singular meaning, use a singular verb. a. b. The whole flock enters the meadow through a gate. (a unit, singular) The entire audience applauds the performers. (a unit, singular). 2. If you are referring to the singular members of the group, use a plural verb. a. Other words in the sentence will help you tell whether a collective noun is singular or plural. 1. The family begins its trip. (its – singular) 2. The family eat their sandwiches. (their – plural). J. An appositive is a noun placed next to another noun to identify it or add information about it. 1. Example: Rachael Ray, a chef, made an important discovery. a. The noun chef identifies Rachael Ray, the noun next to it. Chef tells what Ray is. In the sentence, a chef, is an appositive. b. An appositive is sometimes accompanied with other words. c. The noun chef identifies Ray. K. An appositive phrase is a group of words that includes an appositive and other words that describe the appositive. 1. You always use an appositive or appositive phrase together with another noun. 2. An appositive phrase can come at the beginning, middle, or end of a sentence. 3. It must appear next to the noun it identifies. a. Example: An expert on food, Dylan worried about food spoilage. b. Dylan, an expert on food, worried about food spoilage. c. A simple solution had occurred to Dylan, an expert on food. d. Take note of the placement of the commas.