RBI Monetary Museum

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The
Mughal
Empire
Social

There was much
fighting between the
Hindus and the
Muslims. Akbar
changed this with
religious tolerance
during his reign, but
his successor,
Aurangzeb, destroyed
the Hindus’ rights
when he came to
power.
Social
Under the rule of Akbar, women were
treated fairly. For example. Akbar permitted
widows to be remarried.
 The Sikhs were a religious people who
followed many practices similar to those of
the Muslims. However, they did not
participate in wars and denied any
connections to Islam. After caring for
Khusran, a disobedient prince, the Mughals
specifically targeted the Sikhs.

Political
Under the rule of
Akbar, the Mughal
Empire functioned as a
bureaucracy.
 Akbar was a strict
military ruler who
used artillery in his
military strategies.
This helped the
Mughal Empire grow.

Political

During the reign of Aurangzeb, a band of
Hindu warriors known as the Marathas
attacked. Aurangzeb could never defeat the
Marathas completely and also had to deal
with the Sikhs, who had developed into a
brotherhood of warriors. Aurangzeb also
began to raise taxes for his army, which
led to even more rebellion on the behalf of
the Hindus.
Interaction
In 1526, Babur invaded India after losing
his kingdom in Central Asia. After
defeating the rulers at Delhi, Babur
began the Mughal Empire, which spread
Islam even more throughout South Asia.
 Due to the interaction of Mughal soldiers
with different backgrounds, the language
Urdu was invented. Urdu, which is the
official language of Pakistan, is a
combination of Arabic, Persian, and
Hindi.

Interaction

Humayan, Babur’s
son, brought
Safavid artists to his
empire to teach the
skill of painting
miniatures. These
book illustrations
became a
significant part of
Mughal culture.
Cultural
 Islam
was the dominant religion
of the Mughal Empire. While
many Hindus lived in the
Mughal Empire, their rights
changed depending on who was
in power.
Cultural
To thank the Sufi saint, Sheik Salim Chisti,
for predicting the birth of his son, Akbar
designed the city Fatehpur Sikri in what is
still known as Akbar period architecture.
 In honor of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who
died giving birth, Shah Jahan ordered the
construction of the Taj Mahal.

Economical
Todar Mal, a Hindu and Akbar’s finance
manager, created a successful taxation policy
that greatly resembled that of the U.S.
graduated income tax. Because the taxation
policy was fair and affordable, many people in
the Mughal Empire paid it. This resulted in an
increase of money for the empire.
 The Mughals used a form of currency called
the rupiya.

Economical

During its reign, the
Mughal Empire was an
urban center that traded
with many towns. Due to
high demand, the
Mughal artisans created
many crafts to supply
significant urban centers
like Agra and Delhi.
Sources
Kumar, Padma Mohan. “India- The Roaring Trade Partner of Yore”. Gateway
for India. GatewayforIndia.com. 2005. Web. 23 September 2011.
“Mughal Coinage”. RBI Monetary Museum. Web. 26 September 2011.
“The Muslim Empires Outline”. World Civilizations. Pearson Education, Inc.
1995-2010. Web. 23 September 2010.
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