The Mughal Empire Social There was much fighting between the Hindus and the Muslims. Akbar changed this with religious tolerance during his reign, but his successor, Aurangzeb, destroyed the Hindus’ rights when he came to power. Social Under the rule of Akbar, women were treated fairly. For example. Akbar permitted widows to be remarried. The Sikhs were a religious people who followed many practices similar to those of the Muslims. However, they did not participate in wars and denied any connections to Islam. After caring for Khusran, a disobedient prince, the Mughals specifically targeted the Sikhs. Political Under the rule of Akbar, the Mughal Empire functioned as a bureaucracy. Akbar was a strict military ruler who used artillery in his military strategies. This helped the Mughal Empire grow. Political During the reign of Aurangzeb, a band of Hindu warriors known as the Marathas attacked. Aurangzeb could never defeat the Marathas completely and also had to deal with the Sikhs, who had developed into a brotherhood of warriors. Aurangzeb also began to raise taxes for his army, which led to even more rebellion on the behalf of the Hindus. Interaction In 1526, Babur invaded India after losing his kingdom in Central Asia. After defeating the rulers at Delhi, Babur began the Mughal Empire, which spread Islam even more throughout South Asia. Due to the interaction of Mughal soldiers with different backgrounds, the language Urdu was invented. Urdu, which is the official language of Pakistan, is a combination of Arabic, Persian, and Hindi. Interaction Humayan, Babur’s son, brought Safavid artists to his empire to teach the skill of painting miniatures. These book illustrations became a significant part of Mughal culture. Cultural Islam was the dominant religion of the Mughal Empire. While many Hindus lived in the Mughal Empire, their rights changed depending on who was in power. Cultural To thank the Sufi saint, Sheik Salim Chisti, for predicting the birth of his son, Akbar designed the city Fatehpur Sikri in what is still known as Akbar period architecture. In honor of his wife, Mumtaz Mahal, who died giving birth, Shah Jahan ordered the construction of the Taj Mahal. Economical Todar Mal, a Hindu and Akbar’s finance manager, created a successful taxation policy that greatly resembled that of the U.S. graduated income tax. Because the taxation policy was fair and affordable, many people in the Mughal Empire paid it. This resulted in an increase of money for the empire. The Mughals used a form of currency called the rupiya. Economical During its reign, the Mughal Empire was an urban center that traded with many towns. Due to high demand, the Mughal artisans created many crafts to supply significant urban centers like Agra and Delhi. Sources Kumar, Padma Mohan. “India- The Roaring Trade Partner of Yore”. Gateway for India. GatewayforIndia.com. 2005. Web. 23 September 2011. “Mughal Coinage”. RBI Monetary Museum. Web. 26 September 2011. “The Muslim Empires Outline”. World Civilizations. Pearson Education, Inc. 1995-2010. Web. 23 September 2010.