PPt 4 of 4 - Christianity Spreads to Eastern Europe

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The Spread of Christianity and
Rise of Eastern Europe
Chapter 9 (4 of 4)
Through Missionaries, the Byzantines Spread Christianity to
the Balkans and Russia (Eastern Europe)
Cyril and Methodius
Missionaries
sent by
Byzantines
to convert
people of
eastern
Europe
So, as
Christianity
spread, so
did literacy
and
literature
Created a
written
language for
the Slavs
derived
from Greek
(called
Cyrillic)
Byzantine
missionaries
allowed
local
languages to
be used in
church
(unlike
Catholics)
Competing Catholic
missionaries already sent to
convert eastern Europe
Below are 3 major areas
Catholics converted in the
western half of eastern Europe
Catholic successful at
converting the western half
of eastern Europe
Poland
Bohemia
(now Czech Republic)
Hungary
Jews Settle in Eastern
Europe as Minority Group
Many settle
in eastern
Europe
(especially
Poland)
though still
discriminated
(ex: barred
from
agriculture)
Jews being
discriminated
against
harshly in
western
Europe and
Middle East
Jews stressed education to their boys
(as other societies weren’t) which
would prove valuable
Russia is Born!
The Russian People
Slavs from eastern Europe move into area that
is now Russia and mix with the people already
there to start the foundation of Russian society
Religiously, the Slavs were animists and had
different gods for sun, thunder, wind, and fire
Russia Starts in Kiev
Byzantines traded a
lot with Scandinavia
and traveled through
what is now Russia
to trade
Kiev = trade city in
south Russian
(formed by
Scandinavians/
Vikings) that grew
b/c it was along
trade route
Kievan Rus’
• Formed in 855
by the Prince
Rurik
• Kingdom
based out of
Kiev
• Kievan Rus’
formed the
basis for later
Russia
Kievan Rus’
• Kievan Rus’
trade with
Byzantine
continues to
increase
• Many Russians
visited
Constantinople
• As a result, many
Slavs (the ethnic
group of Kiev)
learned about
Christianity
Ruled Kiev from 980 1015
Converted Kiev to
Christianity
Forced people to convert
that were unwilling
Vladimir I didn’t like
Catholicism (Pope too
much influence)
Vladimir I didn’t like Islam
(not allowed alcohol)
Rurik
Many fell in love with
splendor of Orthodox
Church
Byzantine Church leaders
brought into Kiev to train
Russian priests
Like in Byzantine Empire,
king was in control of
church
Russian Orthodox – New
form of Christianity (similar
to Orthodox religion of
Byzantines
Kievan Rus’ had formal
code of law like the
Byzantines
Kievan Rus’ started by
Rurik, but expands greatly
under his successors
Kievan Rus’ originally just
city of Kiev, but when Kiev
expanded becomes Kievan
Rus’
Yaroslav the Wise
• Last great Kievan
prince
• Made legal code
• Built many
Churches
• Had religious text
translated from
Greek to Slavic
Culture in Kievan Rus’
Similar to Byzantine culture
•
•
•
•
•
Large religious ceremonies
Idea that ruler had great power
Churches fancily decorated (ornate)
Used icons and incense
Polygamy replaced by monogamy
Russian (Kievan) Literature
Used Cyrillic alphabet,
and often wrote about
religious and royal
events
Through literature we
know they saw disasters
as punishment from
God, and success as a
reward
The Boyars
Boyars =
Russian aristocrats
Less political power
than aristocrats in
western Europe
The End of Kiev
Kiev declines in the 1100s for several reasons
•
•
•
•
Royal families fight over succession
Asian invaders begin taking territory
Lost trade with Byzantines b/c that empire fading
Rival princes broke away and formed own kingdoms
TATAR KIEV!
Tatar = Russian
term for
Mongol
invaders
Under Mongol
(Tatar) rule,
Russia further
separated from
western Europe
Mongols
invaded and
capture Russia
(Kievan Rus’) by
1241
Tatars allowed
Christianity to
survive,
This ended the
first chapter in
Russian history
as Mongols
ruled for next
200 years
When Tatars
lost Russia in
1400s, enough
Russian culture
survived and
Russia
reemerged
From Rome to Byzantium to Russia
As the Byzantine Empire fell in 1453, Russia
was reemerging from Mongol rule, and took
the mantle from the Byzantines as the
leaders of eastern Europe, but by then
western Europe had surpassed the east
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