Think of three words that were popular during the following decades: 1950’s, 60’s, 70’s, 80’s, 90’s and now Think of two words and write down five words that didn’t exist 10 years ago Project • Remember minimum of five (5) slides and charts/diagrams for DATA!!? • Due: Presentations begin on Thursday March 8th How does Sociology play a role in Communication? • Speakers of different languages think about the world in quite different ways. • This view is sometimes called the WhorfSapir hypothesis, after the linguists who made it famous - that we know the world only in terms of our language. • Language then determines our cultural reality. Presentations • Presentations must be complete by Thursday • Friday: All students will report to computer lab 223 to do their writing initiative. What is the English Translation for these words? • Tartle Scottish – The act of hesitating while introducing someone because you’ve forgotten their name • Prozvonit Czech – This word means to call a mobile phone and let it ring once so that the other person will call back, saving the first caller money. • Kyoikumama Japanese – “A mother who relentlessly pushes her children toward academic achievement” • Iktsuarpok Inuit – “To go outside to check if anyone is coming.” • Mamihlapinatapei Yagan (indigenous language of Tierra del Fuego) – “the wordless, yet meaningful look shared by two people who both desire to initiate something but are both reluctant to start” True Life: Coming to America • How are Bara from the Czech Republic and Thimothy from Thailand, (refugee camp from Burma) different in their reactions to coming to America? • How are they same? • What obstacles do they face? • What changes in attitude occurred in Bara? • What changes in attitude occurred in Thimothy? • Where do you think they will be in ten years? • How many of you are going to college? • How many of you feel grateful that you can go to college? • Schadenfreude German – Quite famous for its meaning that somehow other languages neglected to recognize, this refers to the feeling of pleasure derived by seeing another’s misfortune. I guess “America’s Funniest Moments of Schadenfreude” just didn’t have the same ring to it. • L’appel du vide French – “The call of the void” is this French expression’s literal translation, but more significantly it’s used to describe the instinctive urge to jump from high places. Wrap Up • Where you live, what language you speak and what time period you live in determine your “cultural reality” • The Whorf-Sapir hypothesis states that we know the world only in terms of our language. • This is why there is often communication gaps between: different ethnic groups, nationalities, age groups, genders. Values and Beliefs • Values are defined as the standards by which people assess desirability, goodness, and beauty; they are broad principles • Beliefs - specific statements that people hold to be true. Beliefs are learned through socialization and help shape how we perceive our surroundings and how our personality develops. • Culture is defined as the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that constitute a people's way of life. • When people travel between societies or even within their own, they can experience culture shock, a personal disorientation that can come from encountering an unfamiliar way of life. What are the differences between these two holiday celebrations? Norms, Folkways, Mores, Taboos & Laws • Norms are defined as rules that guide behavior. • Proscriptive Norms: mandate what we should not do • Prescriptive Norms: stating what we should do. They can change over time, as illustrated by norms regarding sexual behavior. • Norms vary in their degree of importance. Mores distinguish between right and wrong • Folkways distinguish between right and rude. •When considering non-material culture, sociologists refer to several processes that a culture uses to shape its members' thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, symbols, language, values, and norms. Objects we associate with who we are as a person, family, society, culture: iPods, cars, SUV’s, houses, nice lawns! ( ha), clothes, etc. What is Ideal Culture? • Values and norms are not descriptions of actual behavior but rather reflect how we believe members of a culture should behave. • Give an example of this…for example, smoking is unhealthy and leads to health problems. Nobody should smoke. What are Subcultures? • Subcultures are groups within a group whose values and behavior are distinctly differently from the dominant culture. • Different way of looking at life, but still compatible with the main culture • Occupations, (police, fire, corrections, medical), Social interests, (Boy Scouts, hunters, fraternities), Religions,(Catholics, Muslims, Jehovah Witnesses), Politics, (gun rights, pro-life, environmentalists. Ethnicities,(Irish, Native American, Latino) • • • • • • • • • • Folkways distinguish between right and rude Proscriptive Norms: mandate what we should not do Prescriptive Norms: stating what we should do. Ideal Culture: The way things SHOULD be...not how they are Deviance: not conforming to the “norm”. Relative to time and place. • Subcultures are • groups within a group whose values and behavior are distinctly differently from the dominant culture. Do Now: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What are PROscriptive Norms? What are PREscriptive Norms? What are Mores? What are Folkways? What is Ideal Culture? Now…hand in for a quiz grade! (insert hearty chuckle here) What is Deviance? • Deviance: deviating from the norm • Deviance is relative to time and place because what is considered deviant in one social context may be non-deviant in another (e.g., • fighting during a hockey game vs. fighting in a nursing home). Killing another human is considered wrong except when governments permit it during warfare or self-defense . Sociological Reasons for Deviance Deviance Contributes to Social Change (Durkheim) • Deviance is an important element of social change because it offers alternative definitions to what is right. • Sometimes the alternative becomes acceptable and it may even become the dominant view. (Same Sex Marriage, Civil Rights, etc.) Today's crime may be tomorrow's accepted behavior. Deviance Contributes to Social Order • Durkheim emphasized the importance of deviance in society as a tool for boundary maintenance. • The media, who reports on deviance and the accompanying punishment, educates the public by restating society's rules. What are the costs of deviance? • It calls into question our basic beliefs and ideas: It threatens us. • At a social level it challenges the social order: the existing web of relationships, values, reality and meaning • Some form of Control is necessary to help maintain Order: • Internal/socialization. • External: a system of norms, sanctions • and enforcement Social Control You’re • Rewards conformity and punishes deviance. • Through socialization we internalize cultural norms and impose constraints on our own behavior. • The "breaking" of an internalized norm results in guilt and shame. Deviance is relative to place Asian United States Canada United States United States Avoiding eye contact is considered polite The O.K. signal expresses approval Thumbs upused for hitch hiking, or approving of something Someone may whistle when happy. Whistling can express approval, as in cheering at a public event. United States Japan United States Nigeria Europe When saying hello or talking to someone it is impolite to not look directly at the person. Using your middle finger is The O.K. signal very offensive. This is a rude means that you Used in place gesture in are asking for of Nigeria. money. inappropriate language. Whistling may be a sign of disapproval at public events. • What is Deviance? • deviating from the norm • Is the process of being “deviant” mean the same thing everywhere and in every situation? • No...it varies due to situations and places. Killing is wrong, but in war it’s a soldier’s job. Fighting in hockey is a norm, fighting in Shoprite…not so much • What was one reason Emile Durkheim thought deviance was necessary in society? • It would trigger needed changes, or serve to warn others through media. • What are some forms of control necessary to help maintain social order? • Internal: values, beliefs, socialization – family/friends • External: rules, sanctions and enforcements • Social control rewards________________ and ____________ deviance. What was in your box of Deviance? • What did you steal? • Does the value of the item have anything to do with how “wrong” it is? • Does the reason the person gave change anything in reference to how deviant it was? • What type of controls prevented you from doing this again…internal or external? An analysis of Deviance: Merton’s Typology Read and answer questions Subcultures Subcultures What are Countercultures? • Countercultures include groups of people whose values and norms are in opposition to the dominant culture. • Challenge the dominant culture – often confrontational. Some are negative: • Satanists, Skinheads, Hell’s Angels, KKK • Some are positive: Hippies contributed to civil rights, environmental reforms while being criticized by the dominant culture by their “deviant” appearance. Countercultures Can you think of any counter cultures you’ve come in contact with? What is a Cult • Studies performed by those who believe that some religious groups do practice mind control have identified a number of key steps in coercive persuasion • People are put in physical or emotionally distressing situations; • Their problems are reduced to one simple explanation, which is repeatedly emphasized; (mantras) • They receive what seems to be unconditional love, “Love Bombing”, acceptance, and attention from a charismatic leader or group; • They get a new identity based on the group; • They are subject to isolation from friends, relatives and the mainstream culture and their access to information is severely controlled • Subcultures are • groups within a group whose values and behavior are distinctly differently from the dominant culture. • Different way of looking at life, but • Blend in Conflict with ? with the main culture – • Blend In • Countercultures • include groups of people whose values and norms are in opposition to the dominant culture. Challenge the dominant culture – often confrontational. Some are negative a few are positive. • Cults • are organizations that are camouflaged as legitimate groups but slowly isolate members by coercion. • Reading: Cultures, Subcultures and Countercultures 1. What would you consider the dominant culture in your community? 2. What subculture do you feel you fit into? 3. Think about and try to identify three (3) counter cultures: locally, regionally and worldwide. • List three (3) recreational activities/hobbies you participate in now • List three (3) recreational activities/hobbies your parents participate in • Are there any rules for these activities/hobbies?