Introduction to the theory of grammar

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Introduction to the theory of grammar
• Grammar as part of language and a linguistic
discipline
• Parts of grammar.
• Paradigmatic and syntagmatic relations of
grammatical units.
• Language and speech
Language is expressed and acquired
through media
• in ancient India (5th century B.C.)
• 1 SPEECH
(Panini)
• 2 WRITING • and among Ancient Greeks (Aristotle
(384-322 B.C.)).
• the Greeks founded the European
tradition.
• the Romans conquered Greece (2nd
century BC) and Roman scholars
began to analyze Latin in the same
tradition
Language structure
• Phonemes
(meaningless)
• Words (meaningful)
- the smallest naming
units
• Sentences ( the
smallest units of
communication)
Phonology,
Lexicology
Grammar
Morphology Syntax
Traditional definition
Morphology
Syntax
• Morphology is the part
of grammar which deals
with forms of words.
• Syntax is the part of
grammar which studies
phrases and sentences
girl-I-saw-yesterday’s
“has been found”
’ll never remember
I’ll never forget the
girl-I-saw-yesterday’s
smile.
- Yes.
Types of relations between grammatical units
• Paradigmatic
exist between elements
of the language system
outside the strings in
which they co-occur.
Each language unit is
included in a set of
connections based on
different formal and
functional properties.
• Syntagmatic
•immediate linear
relations between units
in a segmental sequence
(string).
•syntactic syntagma is
the combination of at
least 2 words or wordgroups one of which is
modified by the other.
Paradigmatic relations
• I forgot her name.
forget, forgot,
forgetting, forgets,
forgotten
• write, writes,
writing, wrote,
written; sing, sings,
singing, sang, sung
Syntagmatic relations
• She writes poems.
• She has written a
poem.
• She is writing a
poem.
The girl-I-saw-yesterday’s
has been found – was found - found
’ll never remember
N+V
Adj + N
• Morphology studies the paradigmatic relations
of words and sentences,
• Syntax studies the syntagmatic relations of
words and sentences.
Angles of research:
1 a) paradigmatic morphology,
b) syntagmatic morphology
2
a) paradigmatic syntax,
b) syntagmatic syntax
•Practical grammar,
studies the organization
of words into various
combinations, presents a
set of rules of combining
words into utterances, of
modifying the forms of
the words for particular
purposes and for
interpreting the results.
• Theoretical grammar
gives a scientific
explanation to the
nature and
peculiarities of the
grammatical
system of the
language
The aims of the course are:
• to arm students with theoretical knowledge
which will stimulate their active approach to the
understanding of complex grammar phenomena;
• to enable students to clearly understand specific
linguistic literature;
• to prepare them for carrying out their own
research.
• As a result the student is meant to acquire the
ability to form his own ideas on this or that
question.
Language and speech
according to I.A.
Beaudoin de Courtenay (the end of 19th c.) and
Ferdinand de Saussure
• Language and speech are inseparable, they form
an organic unity
• Language is the system (phonological, lexical and
grammatical) that lies at the base of all speaking
• Speech is the manifestation of language, or its
use by various speakers and writers of the given
language
• Language in the narrow sense of the word is a
system of means of expression, while speech is a
manifestation of the system of language in the
process of communication.
He has written a letter.
• Pronoun + Verb + Noun
• She,He, They, We …
• Write,has written,
wrote , will write…
• A letter, a book, a man,
water…
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