A Portrait of the Artist as Young Man By James Joyce Chapter 1 presented by: Devon Blew Jake Curtis Tyler Leigh Matti Haglund Kristen Mitchell Kota Nishiguchi Sadie Olson Danyella Burciaga Chapter Summary The story starts with a young boy named Stephen who is being told a children's story by his father. The reader is given some information about his family before quickly moving forward several years. Stephen is now around grade school age and attending a very religious, all boys boarding school. Here he is being bullied and seems to have very few friends. He is constantly struggling to figure out his place without any real success. He also ponders on the different names of God and comes to the conclusion that there is one God that goes by different names according to the different people. One day he is pushed into a muddy ditch which causes him to go to become sick and go to the infirmary. It then skips to him at home for Christmas dinner with his family where are terrible argument breaks out about the political and religious issues in Ireland. When he goes back to school he breaks his glasses, rendering him useless until his new pair arrives. For this he is beaten unfairly. Stephen decides to tell the rector (schoolmaster) and becomes a hero to the other boys. Sensory Experiences Throughout the chapter Joyce uses multiple senses to involve the reader with the main characters point of view. • Ex: “And how cold and slimy the water had been!”(7). -Here the reader can picture the murky water and picture the stuff in it that would cause it to be slimy. • Ex: “…and their keys made a quick music: click, click: click, click”(11). -This vivid sound description lets the reader know that the train station is a significant place to Stephen because he remembers the specific sound the keys that the guards had. • Ex: “ But Mr. Gleeson had round shiny cuffs and clean white wrists and fattish white hands and the nails of them were long and pointed”(30). -Stephen pays particular attention to this because he is comparing the difference between Athy(a kid) and Mr. Gleeson who is an adult. His use of smaller, less complex adjectives makes it clear that he is still young and although he is aware of his senses, they are nowhere near his full potential. Motifs Good/Bad • In the first chapter we see James Joyce refer to wet and dry. • At the beginning of the chapter, Joyce refers to wetting the bed. • “When you wet the bed first it is warm and then it gets cold. His mother put on the oilsheets.” Here we can see that wetting the bed is a “bad” thing but after the oilsheet is put on the bed, a “good” thing comes of it; the bed is dry. • “Wet” is demonstrates embarrassment when Stephen is beaten because he wasn’t working. He began to cry causing him to become embarrassed. • Wet=bad • Dry=good Motifs Cont. Hot/Cold • Throughout the chapter, Stephen usually associates cold things with bad thoughts or feelings and warm or hot with good thoughts and feelings, but at times it can be switched. • “But then they got hot and then he could sleep” (pg 29). This shows that he feels more comfortable when he is warm. • Yet when the prefect beats Stephen, he uses the heat to describe the kind of pain he is in. “A hot burning stinging tingling blow…”(61). • “And the air in the corridor chilled him too. It was queer and wettish”(23). Here we are able to the use of the wet as well as the cool feeling Stephen associates with bad thoughts and the uncomfortable feeling. Light/Dark • In the book, light represents happiness and joy while dark is bad and fear. • “The sky was pale and cold but there were lights in the castle” (22). Here Stephen becomes happy when he can see the light in the “castle” even though it is cool and pale outside. • “… before he could make up his mind to come back, he had entered the low dark narrow corridor that let to the castle”(65). Here we can tell that Stephen is scared of walking into the rector’s room. Implied Tension Between Catholics and Protestants • This topic in chapter 1 is pertinent, but not a focus. Stephen is subjected to the perpetual religious feud from the very beginning of his life when he declares that “…he was going to marry Eileen,” (20). Because Eileen was a Protestant, Stephen grew scared from Dante and his mothers’ reactions to his statement which caused him to “…hid[e] under the table” and he was later forced to apologize for such hypocrisy. • At Christmas dinner his aunt and Mr. Casey are arguing over the line between religion and politics and his aunt accuses the Irish leader of being Protestant for being under the control of the English government. This further engrains the idea that the Irish Catholics and English Protestants will continue to feud as long as children are brought up in an environment of hate for one another. Perceived Hypocrisy and Betrayal of Catholicism • In the early parts of the book, Stephen details through his encounters with adults the hypocrisy and betrayal of Catholicism. – “O, come all you Roman Catholics that never went to mass.” (46) – This quote by Dedalus calls out the Catholics who criticize people for not being devout to their religion when they themselves seldom attend mass. Perceived Hypocrisy and Betrayal of Catholicism Cont. • During the quarrel over religion, Dante states – “And am to sit here and listen to the pastors of my church being flouted?” (43) – Dante, who is responding to Mr. Dedalus who wishes to end the debate over Catholicism. She calls him out, practically declaring him a traitor for letting the pastors and their name be harassed. Evaluation/Establishment of Identity • • • • • • “Then at the door of the castle the rector had shaken hands with his father and mother, his soutane fluttering in the breeze, and the car had driven off with his father and mother on it. They had cried to him from the car, waving their hands”(3). This quote shows that Stephen has never left home before and his parents are worried about him. He has been babied by his parents and now is left alone at school where he knows nobody and has no family. This is how Stephen starts out as a isolated character who doesn’t really know what’s coming next for him. “It was Wells who had shouldered him into the square ditch the day before because he would not swop his little snuffbox for Well’s seasoned hacking chestnut.(7)” The other boys seem to bully Stephen by pushing him around and forcing him into things he doesn’t want to do. Stephen doesn’t know how to respond or interact with the other boys which puts him more on the outs with them. Again Stephen is skeptical and keeps himself isolated from the boys. “He told them what he had said and what the rector had said and, when he had told them, all the fellows flung their caps spinning up into the air and cried: Hurroo!”(40) At the end of the first chapter, Stephen gets punished by Father Dolan for breaking his glasses and not being able to do his themes because of this. Stephen didn’t break his glasses on purpose but Father Dolan insisted that Stephen was just trying to get out of his work, so he “pandied” him. The boys then told Stephen to tell the Rector what had happened. Stephen does and to the boys this was a triumph because someone actually stood up for themselves. After this incident Stephen will most likely get more respect from the boys and start to accept him. Isolation, Differentness, and Weakness • At Clongowes Wood College, Stephen is not very popular. He is often isolated and bullied. - "He felt his body small and weak amid the throng of players and his eyes were weak and watery." (20) • Stephen separates himself from the rest of the boys because he's aware of his physical weakness. -"He still tried to think what was the right answer. Was it right to kiss his mother or wrong to kiss his mother?" (26). • Stephen is bullied by a boy named Wells. When Stephen said he did kiss his mother, he was laughed at. When he claimed that he did not, he was again laughed at. As a reader, it is clear that there is no "right answer." Stephen felt "hot and confused" and it is clear that Stephen is socially trapped. Isolation, Differentness, and Weakness Cont. • Stephen is often punished for his weaknesses and disabilities. - "...Wells would be sorry then for what he had done." (34) Here, Stephen dramatically predicts that he will die from the illness caused by the cesspool he was put in by the bully named Wells. Stephen cannot stop his tormentors, and this weakness caused his sickness. -"The scalding water burst forth from his eyes and, burning with shame and agony and fear, he drew back his shaking arm in terror and burst out into a whine of pain.“ • Stephen is punished for not writing, but he is unable to write without glasses. Here, physical weakness and social disability cause his punishment and pain. His vision disability prevents him from writing, causing the prefect of studies to interrogate him. When questioned by the prefect of studies, Stephen, out of nervousness, omits the key details that would have prevented his "flogging." Stephen finds beauty in the simplest of things that surround him. When he looks at something that is beautiful you can tell that he really appreciates it because he either repeats the word many times or talks about its beauty for a while. In the example, “White roses and red roses: those were beautiful colours to think of. And for the cards for first place and third place were beautiful colours too: pink and cream and lavender…on the little green place.” (9) He talks about the colors of the roses and the ribbons for a longer period of time than he usually focuses on something which means he really sees it’s true beauty and finds it fascinating. Another way he expresses something that is beautiful is by repeating over and over again that it is beautiful. “How beautiful and sad that was! How beautiful the words were where they said Bury me in the old churchyard! A tremor passes over his body. How sad and how beautiful!” (20) In the example he explains his excitement about how beautiful the words were by repeating the words over and over. Art Stephen recognizes a lot of poetry and song at a young age. The way the poetry is described shows to the reader that he is in awe of the way it is formed and its beauty. He is learning to appreciate and recognize it. He recognized nice sentences in Doctor Cornwell’s Spelling Book, and associates them with poetry even though they were only to learn from. “Wolsey died in Leicester Abby, Where the abbots buried him. Canker is a disease of plants, Cancer one of animals.” (7) This shows his progression as an artist and his ability to see normal things in class and transform them into something more. Another example of his growth in art is, while in class, he is thinking about geography and where he is in the world and writes down his name to the universe. “Stephen Dedalus, Class of Elements, Clongowes Wood College, Sallins, County Kildare, Ireland, Europe, The World, The Universe.” (13) Then when Flemming wrote down certain phrases next to some of the words on the list, Stephen saw it transform into poetry. He appreciated it much more once it was in poetry form and the poetry made him think about who he is in the world. Both of the examples show his mind grow as a poet and artist. B o o k s Stephen loves book and finds comfort in them as well. He finds them magical and they are objects that could take him away from the world he was living in. When he gets sick, one of the first think he could think of is that he would be able to get a book. “It would be nice getting better slowly. You could get a book then.” (22) He was trying to make the situation more positive and he did that by thinking about reading a book. Another way that shows that books were an escape for him is in the example where he says “It was nice and warm to see the lights in the castle. It was like something in a book.” (7) Because he is young and has not experienced a lot in his little life, books are a way for him to use his imagination. They are a way for him to gain confidence and he can use them to demonstrate character like the heroic men in the books do. Words All through out the first chapter Stephen repeats different words many times to really illustrate how he is feeling. He uses them to show to us his pure emotion, but I also think that he uses the same words because he is a child and doesn’t have a very broad vocabulary. The first example of him repeating word was when he was getting flogged. “…and at the sound and the pain scalding tears were driven to his eyes….though the years scalded his eyes…the cry that scalded his throat…the scalding water burst forth from his eyes…he felt the scalding cry…the scalding tears falling out of his eyes…” (44). All throughout the chapter he uses the word cold to describe a different situations. “…made him feel cold…turned and water cam out: cold… he felt cold…. The air in the corridor chilled him.” (9) Those were only a couple examples but he says the word cold on almost every single page and uses it to describe almost everything. He also finds many words very beautiful. “How beautiful and sad was that! How beautiful those words were where they said Bury me in the old churchyard! A tremor passes over his body. How sad and how beautiful!” He finds many words enchanting and beautiful which helps show his development as a young child. Symbols: Birds James Joyce represents the freedom that the main character Stephen longs for by using the imagery of a bird. The bird portrays Stephen’s desire of wanting to fly away to escape because of how trapped he feels. The use of bird imagery often occurs when Stephen is feeling angsty. On page 33 Stephen thinks about “a heavy bird flying low through the grey light…” this yet again symbolizes the desire he feels of escaping his sickness. Birds in general also represent mystery which also symbolizes the distant future that Stephen sees for himself. Water • Water imagery occurs many times throughout chapter one and represents the reality of the real world that Stephen has to face. On page 22, Stephen does not want to go in the cold water but he gets forced which shows how reality isn’t always pleasant. Stephen compares the feeling of being pushed into the ditch and the feeling of the water that the he describes to be “cold and slimy” (22). Also on page 52 Stephen describes the sound of the cricket bats and also compares this with “drops of water in a fountain slowly falling in the brimming bowl.” The use of water imagery is also significant here because it shows how although he is gaining experience over time he is also losing innocence at the same time. The water imagery however is very consistent which can also represent Stephen himself and how he feels at any given time. For example, many times he finds himself replaying the feeling he got when feeling the “cold and slimy” water and also the moment where he becomes frightened because of his illness. Water always seems to be around. Maze/Labyrinth • When Stephen decides to report the rector about his unfair treatment he had, he correlates his journey to that of the Greek character Daedalus and the struggle that he faced when trying to escape his labyrinth. Stephen described his journey in the castle in much detail, stating that it was “narrow” and “dark” (65) and very confusing to find the end which makes it seem as if he is navigating through a maze. “The Argument”-Catholics Vs. Irish • Mr. Dedalus states to Dante – “We go to the house of God, Mr. Casey said, in all humility to pray to our Maker and not to hear election addresses.” – Dante responds, – “A priest would not be a priest if he did not tell his flock what is right and what is wrong.” • The Irish nationals believe in separation of church and state, and believe it is morally wrong for priests and ministers to discuss politics during mass, while the Catholics believe they should blindly follow the divine inspiration of priests. “The Argument”-Loss of Innocence • During the dinner Stephen watches the parents argue, realizing the reality of adulthood and loses some of his admiration of the adults. • As the book carries on through the first chapter, Stephen’s innocent child mind is changed by the new world he encounters. He progresses from “When you wet the bed it is warm then it gets cold.”(19) and other childish topic to ultimately becoming a rebellious hero when he ratted out Father Dolan for when he unfairly pandied Stephen’s wrist. History/Government Charles Stewart Parnell • "Parnell was an Irish nationalist and statesman who led the fight for Irish Home Rule in the 1880s." Parnell graduated from Cambridge University. Then, entered parliament as a member of Home Rule League (Irish Parliamentary Party) Parnell encouraged Irish peasants to stop paying rent to hurt the landlords and land agents. He also encouraged nonviolence, but his policy was undermined by an Irish terrorist group. He was also accused of sleeping with his loyal supporter's wife. Charles Stewart Parnell in the Text • The Irish are divided between those who support Parnell and those who do not. Dante is represents the Catholics who do not support Parnell. -"'Parnell! Parnell! He is dead!' They fell upon their knees, moaning in sorrow. And he saw Dante...walking proudly and silently past the people who knelt by the waters edge." (38) •Up to this point, Dante's position on Parnell isn't revealed and is further expanded during "the Argument." But here, it's clear that she is indifferent, if not satisfied, with Parnell's death -"' A traitor to his country,' replied Dante. 'A traitor, an adulterer! The priests were right to abandon him.'' (48) •Dante refers to Parnell's affair with a married woman. It upset the religious supporters, probably causing the divide in Irish Nationalists. • • • The Fenian Movement • In the mid 1800’s, lower class individuals from Ireland desired independence after Britain had done nothing to support Ireland during the Great Famine. Led by James Stephens (who influenced Stephen Dedalus’ name) and John O’Mahony, the movement was comprised of those who had a strong sense of nationalism and a will to use violent force to attain independence. In Portrait, those who have this strong sense of nationalism are associated with the movement, like Dante. Terence Bellew MacManus • • • • "Didn't the bishops of Ireland betray us in the time of the union when Bishop Lanigan presented an address of loyalty to the Marquess Cornwallis? Didn't the bishops and priests sell the aspirations of their country in 1829 in return for catholic emancipation? Didn't they denounce the fenian movement from the pulpit and in the confession box? And didn't they dishonour the ashes of Terence Bellew MacManus?" (p.33) Terence Bellew MacManus (1823-1861) was as an Irish radical who participated in the young Irelander Rebellion on 1848. To his demise he was committed with treason and sentenced to death. He was sent to Australia and then escaped to the United States where he spent the rest of his life until he died in 1861. After his death, his body was transported back to Ireland where the Fineans celebrated his life and sacrifices with a large burial service. In the text, Dante is saying that Bishops betrayed Ireland by not sticking with the country in the time of need. Because MacManus gave so much for Ireland, she is saying that the bishops have dishonored his life by not staying with their country. Hamilton Rowan • • • • Hamilton Rowan was a founding member of the Dublin Society of United Irishmen. He was an Irish celebrity. He wanted to establish a republic in Ireland much like that of France. Escaped arrest for treason by throwing his hat in to the garden and tricking the English soldiers into thinking that he went that way while actually going another. “He wondered from which window Hamilton had thrown his hate on the haha and had there been flowerbeds at that time under the windows”(22). “That is where Hamilton Rowan had passed and the marks of the soldiers’ slugs were there”(66). Lord Leitrim’s Coachman • Lord Leitrim was known as an evil landlord • While driving to Milford on April 1878 William Sydney Clements, 3rd Earl of Leitrim and his coachman were murdered • They were murdered by a farmer’s son revenging a wrong suffered by his sister • His funeral sparked a great debate in the House of Commons in Dublin • “‘Princes of the church, yes,’ said Mr. Casey with slow scorn. ‘Lord Leitrim's coachman, yes,' said Mr. Dedalus." (44) Michael Davitt • Davitt was an Irish politician and organizer of the LRM (Leader Fenian Movment) however he also served seven years in jail for attempting to smuggle firearms. • Stephen refers to Michael Davitt when he states, "Dante had two brushes in her press. The brush with the maroon velvet was for Michael Davitt and the brush with the green velvet back was for Parnell" (p 20). • Link to the text: Compared to Parnell, Davitt was more of a political agitator and believe that Parnell lacked moderation in his opposition to English rule. Irish Politics v. Modern Politics Parnell, Catholics v. Nationalists Catholics v. Protestants • • • • Charles Stewart Parnell(1846-1891) was the founder of the Irish Parliamentary Party and is known as one of the greatest figures in Irelands history. When the English came into Ireland almost all of the natives remained Catholic. Parnell was Protestant but the majority of his party was Catholic. He made himself and the party known to the English government but remained a part of it. The Nationalists wanted Ireland to be democratic and be able to vote through local elections. They got this after Parnell’s death. • • • Ireland had practically been all Catholic up until the English Protestant rule came in. Conflict between the two religions is extremely similar to the political parties of the United States. Each of the religions has major influence in the country and have been the main source of conflict throughout the whole country. Both Northern Ireland and Independent Ireland have conflicts between the two. In the text Stephen experiences these conflicts throughout his Christmas dinner with his family. “I am a catholic as my father…”(22), “I am no protestant..”(22). Stephen was raised Catholic and attends a catholic boarding school in order to grow up with the religion. Greek Mythology Daedalus- “The Great Artificer” • He is also known as “cunning worker” because of he was a very skilled craftsman and artesian. • He built the Labyrinth which housed the Minotaur, under King Minos's order. Later he was sent into the labyrinth with his son Icarus. • Daedalus built himself and his son a pair of wings made out of wax and feathers, which they would use to escape. When they tried to escape Icarus flew too high and his wax melted, and he therefore fell into the sea and died. Daedalus used his wings to successfully make it out of the labyrinth. King Minos • Son of Zeus and Europa-King of Crete and was favored by the gods. • Some saw him as wise and just, while many others feared him, seeing him as a cruel and wicked king. • He was given a white bull by the in order to give to King Poseidon but instead kept it for himself. Minos’ Wife and the Bull In order for Minos to prove his worth to Poseidon, he was to sacrifice a great white bull Poseidon had let free in the ocean. Greedily, Minos kept the great white bull for himself and sacrificed a bull from his stock instead. Poseidon ultimately found out and cursed Minos’ wife, Pasiphae, as punishment. The curse caused Minos’ wife to fall in love with the bull and out of this love the Minotaur was born. The Minotaur • In Greek mythology, the Minotaur is a beast with the head of a bull and the body of a man. • He lived in the center of the Labyrinth created by Daedalus and his son Icarus. • He was put into the labyrinth because of all the destruction he cause and was eventually slayed by Theseus with Aegeus’ sword during the third sacrifice. The Labyrinth • In Greek Mythology the Labyrinth was created by Daedalus for King Minos in order to hold the Minotaur in. • Although it is generally thought that labyrinth is just another term for the word maze, it actually first meant a structure that had one path to the center and back without branches. • Stephen’s last name is Dedalus which alludes to the creator of the labyrinth and just like Daedalus struggled to find his way out of it, so is Stephen struggling to find his place in life and his country. • The Labyrinth was created with several traps that are extremely difficult to get out of. • Stephen faces these problems in his own life such as when Wells is bullying Stephen about kissing his mother. No matter how he answered they still made fun of him which left him feeling trapped. The Wings • Deadalus and Icarus wanted to make wings like the birds so they could escape a tower they were imprisoned in • They decided to make the wings out of bird feathers and wax • Icarus was skeptical of the materials used and the wings in general he said if he flew to close to the sea he would fall in or if he flew to high the sun would melt his wings and he would fall • In the end, Daedalus did disobey his fathers orders and he did end up flying to high and to low and his wings melted and he fell into the sea and drowned • Throughout the first chapter Stephen is isolated from the other school boys because he feels they are all trapped in the Irish culture. Stephen wants wings like Daedalus to be able to be free and fly away from the limitations of the strict society. Stephen may also get the chance to be free and soar, but he may abuse his freedom and end up like Daedalus. Icarus’ Fall • • • • • Icarus, with the excitement of flight, forgot his father's warning. He flew too high. The sun melted the wax on the wings, causing Icarus to fall into the ocean. Daedalus saw this but was unable to help as his son drowned in the ocean. The Icarian sea and the island Icaria were named after the location where Icarus died. In this case, Stephen is Icarus, son of Daedalus (Mr. Dedalus). During the Christmas dinner, the argument dominates the scene. Being his first time at the adult table, Stephen is just an observer of the argument, rather than a participant. His fall seems to be when he over-reached his limits by speaking out during the heated battle. By saying, "I forgot little old Paul Cullen! Another apple of God's eye," Stephen supported Dante's position. This overexcited Dante and Mr. Casey, ending the argument. Mr. Dedalus cried at the end because he was basically betrayed by his own son. Quiz Time 1.) Who tells the story to Stephen when he is a child? 2.)What do light and dark symbolize? 3.)Who is the boy that bullies Stephen at school? 4.)Stephen is Protestant. True or False? 5.)What color are the roses Stephen thinks are beautiful? Quiz Time 6.)What is the name of Daedalus’ son that dies? 7.) What holiday is it that Stephen goes home at? 8.) Why did Stephen get “pandied”? 9.) What does Stephen do that causes the other kids to see him as a hero? 10.)Which Irishman escaped arrest by tricking the guards? a. Parnell b.MacManus c. Rowan D.Davitt Quiz Answers 1.)Stephen’s father tells him the story. 2.)The light symbolized happiness while the dark symbolized fear. 3.)Wells is the bully at his school. 4.)False, Stephen is Catholic. 5.)The roses are red and white. 6.)Icarus is Daedalus’ son who dies from flying too close to the sun. 7.) Stephen goes home during the Christmas holiday. 8.) He gets beaten because his glasses were broken and he could not do his work. 9.) The other kids view him as a hero when Stephen goes to the rector(schoolmaster) and tells him about the unfair beating he received. 10.) C. Rowan escaped by throwing his cap into a bush, leading the guards astray.