Hmong in Brief: History, Culture, and the U.S.

advertisement
HMONG IN BRIEF:
HISTORY, CULTURE, AND
THE U.S.
Jenjee Txujci Sengkhammee, M.S.
Pre-doctoral Psychology Intern
Illinois State University
Presentation to AsiaConnect
May 24, 2013
HMONG MEANS FREE
• Distinct ethnic/cultural group
• Ancestrally Southern Chinese who migrated south due to
religious persecution
• Primitive life with limited contact with industrialized cultures
• Populated Laos, North Vietnam, Burma, China and
Thailand…
• Not Lao citizens; lived peacefully in
the mountainsides
HMONG CULTURE
• Diversity within the Hmong
• White, Blue/Green, Striped, Suav
• Traditional religion “Shamanism”
• Spirit Calling
• Organized religion
• Christians
• Catholics
Photo from UC Davis
HMONG CULTURE
• Live in Clans - 12 Original
• Example: Yang, Lee, Her
• Demonstrate lineage of relationship
• Traditional roles of men and women
• Men head of household
• Women caretakers
• Children caretakers
• Sons versus daughters
HMONG LANGUAGE
• Two dialects
• White Hmong (majority)
• Blue or Green Hmong (minority)
• Written Language developed in 1952-53
• Father Yves Betrais, Dr. Lindwood Barney, & Dr. William A. Smalley
• Romanized Popular Alphabet (RPA)
• Tonal Language, 7 tones and 13 vowels
• Example: Nyob Zoo - Hello or Hi
• Chao-Fa (Hmong rebel group)
• Similar to Thai and Lao written language
Photo from UW Madison
THE SECRET WAR IN LAOS
• Covert Operations with U.S.
CIA involvement in 1950-1970’s
• Late General Vang Pao – Hmong
leader
• Soldiers
• Ho Chi Minh Trail in Laos
• Blockage of army supplies
• Medics & Rescuing soldiers
• Plane mechanics
• Interpreters & Guides
• Est. 30,000 killed (Hutchinson,
1997)
ESCAPE FROM LAOS & REFUGEE STATUS
• Perceived as traitors to the Pathet Lao government
• Air-lifted by U.S. Military
• Escape crossing the Mekong River
• Refugee Camps in Thailand
•
•
•
•
•
Poor living conditions = Hepatitis B
Ban Vinai
Chieng Kham or (Kong)
Nong Khai
Last Wave (2003-2004) Wat Tham Krabok
• Refugees moved to Australia, France, Canada, French Guyana,
United States
• 1970’s refugee status in the U.S.
• First Generation
HMONG IN THE HOMELAND
• Hmong-Thai Refugees repatriated to Laos
•
•
•
•
Live as Thai people
Controversial - Hmong are missing
Lao government denies persecution
No international involvement or observation (HRW, UNHCR)
• Hmong in Laos
•
•
•
•
•
•
Live as Lao people
Living in the jungles
Considered rebels by Lao PDR
Controversial - Hmong persecution
Lao government denies persecution
No international involvement
• Hunted Like Animals
HMONG IN THE UNITED STATES
• Hmong Population
• United States - 260,076 (.08% of the U.S. population)
• California - 91,224
• Minnesota - 66,181
• Wisconsin - 49,240
• Illinois – 651
• Birth and Citizenship Status
•
•
•
•
148,499
102,792
65,060
37,732
U.S. born
Foreign born
Foreign born – Naturalized US citizen
Foreign born – Not US citizen
(2010 Census)
HMONG IN THE UNITED STATES
(2010 Census)
• Entry into the U.S.
• 20.5% 2000 or later
• 28.9% 1990-1999
• 50.6% Before 1990
• Hmong Educational Attainment (25 years and older-104,031)
•
•
•
•
•
Trends show increases in educational attainment
35.5% Less than a H.S. diploma
27.9% Some college or Associate’s Degree
13%
Bachelor’s Degree
2.6% Graduate or Professional Degree
HMONG IN THE UNITED STATES
(2010 Census)
• Language spoken at Home (Age 5 and older)
• 90.3% Speak language other than English at home
• Household Income (48,607 households)
• $46,500 Median family income
• Poverty Rates
• 21.3% Living in poverty
Photo from www.galenfrysinger.com
RESOURCES
• Shamanism and Medicine
• The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down, Anne Fadiman
• The Split Horn, PBS Video
• Involvement in the War
• Tragic Mountains, Dr. Jane Hamilton
• Hmong in Laos
• Hunted Like Animals, Sommerfield Films
• Hmong Human Rights Watch
Download
Related flashcards

Pastoralists

20 cards

African nomads

18 cards

Indo-Aryan peoples

26 cards

Personal life

19 cards

Christian symbols

18 cards

Create Flashcards