PowerPoint Presentation - Miami Urban League Report Card

Miami Urban League
Report Card on Black America
2010: Where we stand
The Report Card
• Where does Black America stand when
it comes to the major indicators of
“quality of life?”
– Educational opportunity
– Jobs and income security
– Crime & safety
– Family stability
– Health & access to care
1
Is it the best of times?
• The country elected its first
Black president.
• 65% of Blacks voted in 2008.
• 83% of Blacks 25 and older
have at least a high school
diploma and 20% have at least
a Bachelor’s degree.
• 2.5 million Blacks were in
college in 2008, double the
number 15 years earlier.
• Oprah, LeBron, Jay Z and
others symbolize rising
Black wealth.
2
… or the worst of times?
• The gains of suburban Blacks
have not been matched in the
urban core.
• Black children are falling
behind in education.
• Blacks are far more likely to
be unemployed than their
White peers.
• Blacks are far more likely to die of treatable diseases, and
preventable ones like AIDS.
• Blacks are far more likely to come in contact with the
criminal justice system than their White peers.
3
Education
Falling into the gap
A young population
• The Black population of the U.S. as of
July 1, 2008: 41.1 million
– 31% were younger than 18 (compared
to 25% of all Americans)
– Just 8% were 65 and older
– The youth of the Black community
compounds the risk and the opportunity.
When young people fail, the community
falters.
5
The achievement gap
• 56 years after Brown vs. the Board of
Education, Black students continue to
face significant barriers to achievement,
and sizable gaps in their performance
versus everybody else.
6
The achievement gap (cont’d)
• On average, Black and Latino students
are two to three years of learning
behind White students of the same age.
• 48 percent of Black and 43 percent of
Hispanic fourth and eighth graders are
“below basic” in reading and math,
versus 17 percent of Whites.
Source: McKinsey & Company, National
Assessment of Educational Progress
7
The graduation gap
• Nearly one in three high school students in
the U.S. fails to graduate high school on
time.
• An estimated 1.2 million students drop out
each year – an average of 7,000 every
school day, or one every 26 seconds.
• On average, only 50 percent of Black and
Hispanic students complete high school on
time and receive a diploma.
Source: America’s Promise Alliance, “Cities
In Crisis 2009” report
8
A 2007 Johns Hopkins
University study found that:
• 1,642 of the nation’s 13,743 high
schools (about 1 in 8) could be
classified as “drop-out factories”
– Schools graduating less than 60% of the
freshmen within four years
• That means for every 10 freshmen
attending these schools, 4 will drop out
by their senior year.
Source: Center for the Social Organization
of Schools, Johns Hopkins University
9
The Johns Hopkins
researchers found that:
• More than 1 in 3 Black and Hispanic
students attend a “dropout factory”:
– 38 percent of Black students
– 33 percent of Hispanic students
10
Source: Alliance for Excellent Education,
Center for the Social Organization of
Schools, Johns Hopkins University
The results are clear
• Just 13% of all U.S. schools (the
“dropout factories”) produce 51% of all
of the nation’s dropouts.
• These schools are responsible for:
– 73 percent of all Black dropouts
– 66 percent of all Hispanic dropouts
– 81 percent of all Native American dropouts
11
Source: Alliance for Excellent Education,
Center for the Social Organization of
Schools, Johns Hopkins University
Crisis in the urban core
• In 16 of America’s 50 largest cities, the principal school
district has a graduation rate below 50%.
– Main school district graduation rates: Indianapolis
(31%), Cleveland (34%), Detroit (38%), Milwaukee
(41%), Baltimore (41%), Atlanta (44%), Los Angeles
(44%), Las Vegas (45%), and Columbus (45%).
• The graduation gap between urban and suburban schools
in these cities was as high as 43% (Cleveland), 39%
(Baltimore), 38% (Columbus), 35% (Milwaukee) and 33%
(Nashville).
• 77% of suburban students in the 50 largest cities graduate
on time versus 59% of urban students.
Source: America’s Promise Alliance, “Cities
In Crisis 2009” report
12
The racial gap
Graduation Rates by State & Race, 2007 (%)
Michigan
New York
Pennsylvania
Ohio
North Carolina
All Students
70
68
78
74
63
White
77
79
84
80
70
Hispanic
44
46
50
48
50
Black
38
47
49
47
45
Asian
78
76
79
76
74
Nativ e Am. WH-BLK Gap
49
-39
40
-32
38
-35
31
-33
44
-25
In five states where the Black graduation rate was
below 50 percent in 2007, the average
“graduation gap” between White and Black
students was 32.8%.
Source: Alliance for Excellent Education
13
Florida’s graduation gap
• In Florida, approximately 81% of White
Students graduate from high school on
time, compared to 66 percent of
Hispanics and 58 percent of Blacks.
• 8 of the state’s estimated 163 “dropout
factories” are located in a single,
majority Black school district in MiamiDade County.
14
Source: Florida Department of Education,
Center for the Social Organization of
Schools, Johns Hopkins University
Miami’s “dropout factories”
Miami’s two majority-Black school Districts (1 and 2) have the fewest “A”
rated schools, and District 2 is home to 8 of the county’s 13 “F” schools.
13% of District 2 schools are rated “F”, while just 23% are rated “A”.
Et hnic Makeup and Share of A and F Schools By Dist rict
100%
90%
Percentage of District schools rated “A”
85
80
75
80%
77
71
Percent
70%
%HIS
60%
58
50%
40%
%WH
%A
23
20%
10%
%BLK
%F
Percentage of District schools rated “F”
29
30%
47
13
4
0
0
0%
1
2
3
4
0
5
3
6
0
0
7
8
5
9
School District
15
Source: Urban League of Greater Miami,
Miami-Dade Public Schools
Resources, not race
• The McKinsey and other studies have found
that the achievement gap is not about race,
it’s about resources.
– Black students are more likely to live in lower
income communities, with fewer property tax
dollars for school funding;
– Urban and lower income school districts have
difficulty attracting the highest quality teachers;
– Black and urban students are more likely to be
taught by less inexperienced, lower paid
instructors than their White and suburban peers.
16
The parent factor
More than 30 years of
research have shown that
the level of parental
involvement is more
important to academic
achievement than family
income, parental
education level, racial,
ethnic or cultural
background.
More parental involvement means
less absenteeism, more homework
completion, higher grades and test
scores, higher high school
graduation rates and increased
college enrollment.
17
Source: Center for Law and Education,
Institute for Responsive Education
Education and priorities
• For many parents in the urban core, nontraditional work hours, stress, one-parent
households, lack of information, lack of
access to homework help, computers and
other resources, and a community
environment that devalues education all can
negatively impact parental involvement.
• When that happens, Black children suffer.
18
Charter schools growing
• A study by the Civil Rights Project at UCLA
finds increasing numbers of parents in
struggling school systems turning to charter
schools.
– In Washington D.C., 61% of the District’s 46,000
students attend charter schools.
– 84 percent of the District’s charter school students
are Black, versus 78 percent in regular public
schools.
– Nationally, in 2008, Black students made up a third
of charter school enrollment -- twice their share in
public schools.
Source: “Study: Charter school growth
19
accompanied by racial imbalance” Washington
Post article by Nick Anderson, 2/2/2010
College completion
• Even when Black students make it to college,
fewer than half get a diploma within six years.
-- Source: "Graduation Rate Watch: Making Minority Student Success a Priority."
• Even at the nation’s 83 HBCUs, just 37% of
Black students get their degree within six
years, according to an Associated press
analysis. -- Source: USA Today, 3/30/2009
• At 38 HBCUs, the graduation rate for Black
men is 25 percent or less. -- Source: USA Today, 3/30/2009
20
It’s not just about civil rights
• Education is the civil rights issue of the
21st Century. But closing the achievement
gap is also an economic necessity for
America.
– If the U.S. had narrowed the performance gap
between Black, Hispanic and White students
between 1993 and 1998, U.S. GDP in 2008 would
have been $310-$525 billion higher, adding 2 to 4
percent to our GDP.
21
Source: McKinsey & Company study: “The
Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap
in America’s Schools”
Closing the gap matters
to the whole country…
• The Program for International Student
Assessment (PISA) estimates that
American 15 year-olds perform at the
level of students in Portugal and the
Slovak Republic, well below countries
like Canada, the Netherlands, Australia
or South Korea.
22
Source: McKinsey & Company study: “The
Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap
in America’s Schools”
The U.S. ranks 25th in math &
science
23
Source: McKinsey & Company study: “The
Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap
in America’s Schools”
The U.S. is no longer the besteducated country in the world
• By far, the greatest factor in declining
U.S. global educational standing is the
gap between the proficiency of White
and Black and Hispanic students.
– 40 years ago, the U.S. had the world’s
highest graduation rates. Now we’re 18th
out of 24.
– In 1995, the U.S. was first in college
graduation rates. Today we’re 14th.
24
Source: McKinsey & Company study: “The
Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap
in America’s Schools”
… and it matters to individuals
• Educational attainment is tied to:
– lifetime earnings
– health outcomes
– higher instances of incarceration
– civic participation
– and other key indicators of quality of life
25
The McKinsey Study found…
• Eighth graders who scored in the top quartile in math
had 40 percent higher medium income 12 years later.
• A high school dropout is 5-to-8 times more likely to
wind up behind bars.
• A person without a high school diploma is more likely
to smoke, to be obese, and to suffer poor health over
their lifetime.
• High school graduates are twice as likely to vote as
dropouts, and college grads are 50 percent more
likely to vote than high school graduates.
26
Source: McKinsey & Company study: “The
Economic Impact of the Achievement Gap
in America’s Schools”
Jobs and economic
opportunity
The wealth gap
Black America’s “Great
Recession” didn’t start in 2007
• Long before the “Great Recession”
threw one in ten Americans out of
work, Black America
was suffering
from high
rates of
joblessness.
28
Disproportionate joblessness
After falling during the 1990s, Black unemployment
peaked at 17.3% in January, while the highest jobless
rate for Whites was 9.7 percent (in February.)
Unemploy ment by Race, 2000-2009
1 6 .0
1 4 .0
1 2 .0
1 0 .0
Blac k
White
8 .0
6 .0
4 .0
2 .0
0 .0
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
Source: U.S. Department of Labor
29
Little improvement
And while
unemployment
is slowly
declining,
Blacks remain
out of work at
nearly twice
the rate for
Whites.
Black v. White Unemployment, 2010
20.0
18.0
16.0
14.0
12.0
Black
10.0
White
8.0
6.0
4.0
2.0
0.0
Jan
Black
White
Feb
Mar
Jan
17.3
9.6
Feb
16.2
9.7
Apr
Mar
16.6
9.3
May
Apr
15.9
8.6
Jun
May
15.3
8.5
Jun
15.6
8.7
Source: U.S. Department of Labor
30
Location, location…
“…a large segment of the Black population has
simply been hit harder than everyone else. That’s
indisputable fact. There are a number of reasons.
Many of the cities where Black Americans are
concentrated are in the Rust Belt; St. Louis,
Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo, Baltimore. The jobs in
the steel mills of Gary, Indiana and the auto plants
of Flint,Michigan that made possible the American
Dream for millions of Blacks and Whites in the
1950s and 60s are gone. “
31
“Black Unemployment Is Not News”
article by Joel Dreyfuss, The Root
2/7/2010
Black America is struggling
• The median income for Black households
was $34,218 in 2008, the lowest of any
group.
• A single Black woman with children had a
median annual income of $25,958 in 2008.
• “One in five Black families lives in poverty.”
• Four out of 10 Black families headed by a
single mother are poor.
32
“Black Unemployment Is Not News”
article by Joel Dreyfuss, The Root
2/7/2010, U.S. Census Bureau
The “wealth gap”
• Median net worth of a single White woman
aged 36 to 49: $42,600 (about 61 percent
of their White male counterparts)
• Median wealth for a single Black woman
aged 36 to 49: only $5 (that’s not a typo:
$5!)
• Median household wealth of all working
age Black women 18 to 64: $100 (Hispanic
women 18 to 64: $120)
33
Source: Insight Center for Community
Economic Development data, cited by
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 7/14/2010
The “wealth gap” (cont’d)
• Median wealth of married or cohabitating
White women: $167,500
• Median wealth of married or cohabitating
Black women: $31,500
• 46% of Black and 45% of Hispanic women
have zero or negative net worth (vs. 23% of
single White women)
• 33% of Black and 38% of Hispanic men have
zero or negative net worth (vs. 15% of single
White men)
34
Source: Insight Center for Community
Economic Development data, cited by
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 7/14/2010
Banking on our future?
• A 2010 study by the Insight Center for
Community Economic Development
found that a quarter of Black and a third
of Hispanic women have no
relationship with a bank or other
mainstream financial institution,
making it harder to build wealth.
35
Source: "Lifting As We Climb: Women of
Color, Wealth and America's Future,” study
by Mariko Lin Chang, Insight Center for
Community Economic Development
“Prey-day” lending
• Lack of banking relationships makes
Blacks more vulnerable to predatory
lending, and more reliant on “nontraditional” sources like payday loans.
– These loans carry interest rates of up to
200%
36
Crime and community
The “security gap”
Crime and economics
“Between 1993 and 2001, the Black violent crime rate
declined by 60%.6 Between 1990 and 2004, the Black
teen pregnancy rate declined by 46%. These improving
trends have ended, and it is likely that the worsening
economic conditions of African Americans since 2001
have played at least a partial role.”
Higher poverty rates, lower graduation rates
and rising joblessness are directly correlated
with increases in crime.
Source: Economic Policy Institute
38
Incarceration nation
• 2,297,400 Americans were in federal and
state prisons or local jails by midyear 2008
• Of that total, Black men were incarcerated at
6.6 times the rate of White men.
• One in 21 Black males was incarcerated at
midyear 2008, versus one in 138 White
males.
• Black males (846,000) outnumbered White
males (712,500) and Hispanic males
(427,000) among inmates in prisons and jails.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics
39
Incarceration nation
• About 37% of male inmates at midyear 2008
were Black, down from 41% in 2000.
• More than 333,000 Blacks were on parole as
of year end 2009, making it hard to find a job.
• Nearly 1 in 20 Black men is currently in
prison.
• Black American men have about a 1-in-3
chance of serving time in prison during their
lifetime.
40
Criminal injustice?
• Studies show Black court defendants are:
– More likely than White defendants to be
represented by a public defender
– Less likely to receive adjudication or a plea
bargain
– More likely to receive long or maximum sentences
– More likely to receive the death penalty in murder
cases
– More likely as juveniles to receive adult sentences
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics
41
The “war on drugs”
• Of the 211,338 Americans currently
serving time in federal prison, 57.9%
are White, 38.5 % are Black, and 33%
are Hispanics of varying race.
• 93.5% are men.
• 51.3% are incarcerated for drug
offenses, versus 2.8% for homicide
Source: Federal Bureau of Prisons
42
Blacks are the primary
victims of violent crime
• In 2008, the crime rate against Blacks was 26
per 1,000 persons age 12 or older; versus 18
per 1,000 for Whites.
• Blacks were victims of rape/sexual assault,
robbery, and aggravated assault at rates
higher than those for Whites.
• In 2007, 49% of murder victims were Black,
47% were White, and 2% were Asians,
Pacific Islander, and Native Americans.*
43
*Includes Black and White Hispanics.
Source: Bureau of Justice Statistics
Black households
Seeking stability
Marriage inequality
• While 50% of all Americans were
married in 2008, the figure for Blacks
was 30%, despite nearly identical
divorce rates.
• 47% of Black Americans have never
been married, versus 30% of Whites.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
45
Women heading households
• 45.3% of Black women have never been
married, versus 28% of White women.
• 29.3% of Black households with children are
headed by a single woman, versus 12.5% for
White households.
• 13.2% of Black households with children are
headed by a married couple, versus 21.4%
for White households.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
46
Grandparenting
• 6.2% of Black grandparents are living
with their minor grandchildren, twice the
share for Whites.
• Of these, half are responsible for the
children’s care.
• Approximately 1.2 million Blacks (mostly
women) are the primary caregivers for
their grandkids.
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
47
Marriage and poverty
• Single female-headed households are
more likely to fall into poverty. In 2008,
the poverty rate for Black households
with children was 28.2% (versus 14.9%
for Whites.)
– The poverty rate for single female-headed
Black households with children was 42.1%
– The poverty rate for married-parent Black
households with children was 8.3%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau
48
Health and access to care
Unhealthy trends
Statistics tell the story
• Black America faces a number of health
challenges.
– 14% of babies born to Black mothers in 2008
had low birth weight.
– 26% of Black men and 17% of Black women
were smokers.
– 36% of Black men and 53% of Black women
over 20 were obese.
– 39% of Black men and 43% of Black women
had high blood pressure.
50
Source: Centers for Disease Control, U.S.
Census Bureau
Black America and asthma
• From the U.S. Department of Health:
– About 3,807,000 Black Americans
reported having asthma as of 2008.
– Black women are 30% more likely to
have asthma than non-Hispanic White
women.
– Blacks are three times more likely to die
from asthma related causes.
– Black children have a 260% higher
emergency room visit rate, a 250%
higher hospitalization rate, and a 500%
higher death rate from asthma
compared to White children.
51
Source: U.S. Department of Health and
Human Services, Office of Minority Health
Access to care
• 19.1% of Black Americans had no health
insurance in 2008.
• Blacks represent 13% of the U.S. population,
but 30% of the uninsured.
• Combined, Blacks and Hispanics represent
approximately half of the nation’s uninsured.
• 1 in 4 Black Americans are covered by
Medicaid, including 44 percent of Black
children.
52
Source: Centers for Disease Control, Joint
Center for Political and Economic Studies
“Food deserts”
• Black America suffers disproportionately from
lack of access to fresh fruits, vegetables and
other healthy food, contributing to obesity and
poor health.
“In one of the richest countries in the world, there are 23.5 million
Americans, almost half of which are at or below the poverty line,
who live in "food deserts". These are usually communities where
there is limited or no access to foods necessary to maintain a
healthy diet. Food deserts occur mostly in low-income urban or
rural areas where it's either cheaper or easier to purchase a
burger and fries combo than fresh produce.” -- Article, Low-income
Blacks stranded in food deserts, by Marqui Mapp, TheGrio 6/22/2010
53
HIV/AIDS
• Even as the HIV/AIDS rate declines
nationwide, Black America faces a growing
epidemic.
– In 2007, the most recent year for which data is
available, Blacks “accounted for 51% of the
42,655 (including children) new HIV/AIDS
diagnoses in 34 states with long-term, confidential
name-based HIV reporting,” according to the
CDC.
– Blacks “accounted for 48% of the 551,932 persons
(including children) living with HIV/AIDS in those
states.”
Source: Centers for Disease Control
54
AIDS and Black America
• HIV is now the 4th leading cause of
death for Black men and the 3rd for
Black women.
• Blacks have 7 times the new infection
rate of Whites, and the HIV-related
deaths are highest among Blacks.
Source: Kaiser Family Foundation
55
Black women & children
• From to the Kaiser Family Foundation:
– Black women account for the largest share of new HIV
infections among women (61% in 2006) and the incidence rate
among Black women is nearly 15 times the rate among White
women.
– Black women account for most new AIDS cases among women
(66% in 2007); White and Latina women account for 17% and
15% of new AIDS cases, respectively.
– Black women represent more than a third (36%) of AIDS cases
diagnosed among Blacks, while White women represent 15% of
AIDS cases diagnosed among Whites (as of 2007.)
– Although Black teens (ages 13-19) represent only 15% of U.S.
teenagers, they account for 68% of new AIDS cases reported
among teens in 2007. A similar impact can be seen among
Black children.
56
HIV: Silence = Death
• Factors in the prevalence of HIV/AIDS
in the Black community include:
– The stigma associated with same-sex
activity, i.e., man having sex with men
– High incarceration rates, and infection of
women by formerly incarcerated men
– Intravenous drug use
– These factors are particularly acute in
lower income communities
57
Searching for solutions
Moving forward, together
What can be done?
• To improve the life outcomes of Black
America, we must support our children, by:
– Taking back our schools, and mobilizing parents to
demand quality, results-oriented education
– Supporting efforts to encourage school systems to
offer financial incentives to attract and retain good
teachers, and to replace bad ones
– Creating “communities of concern” among adults - with churches, fraternal organizations, local
businesses, police departments, citizens and
families working closely together
59
What can be done? (cont’d)
• To improve our schools, we must:
– Find creative ways to get more parents into the
school building, interacting with teachers
– Support the spread of technology, computers and
Internet access into the urban core
– Become a visible presence at local school boards
60
What can be done? (cont’d)
• To combat economic insecurity we must
– Build a more educated Black workforce
– Financially support historically Black colleges and
help them to better fulfill their purpose
– Improve the technological proficiency of the Black
student and workforce
– Promote an “attitude adjustment” toward careers
and work among our youth. Sports and music
can’t be the be-all and end all
61
What can be done? (cont’d)
• To build community security we must:
– Encourage marriage before children
– Create a culture of celebration of the Black family
– Encourage communities and police to find
channels of communication, and to work together
to combat crime in our neighborhoods
– Broaden the reach of the Black church, “beyond
the pulpit” so churches can meet the needs of
families outside the sanctuary walls.
62
The Development Revolution
To change the state of Black
America is going to take
“revolutionary” action. Adults,
and particularly Black men,
must get re-engaged in our
communities, to save our
children’s future.
These are the building blocks
of the Urban League of Miami’s
“Development Revolution,” and
the foundation of our strategy.
63
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