Addressing Alcohol and Other Drug Use on the University of Toledo

Addressing Alcohol and Other
Drug Use on the University of
Toledo Campus
Presented by: Sarah Kowalski, Shane McCrory, LeEdna Tribble, Keitha West
The Case
Nation–Wide Drinking Problem on College Campuses
Binge Drinking
Alcohol Abuse/ Dependence
International Intervention Programs
Increase in Incidents at UT
Current Policy at UT
The University of Toledo is committed to promoting and maintaining a
work and academic environment that is free from illegal use and misuse
of alcohol and drug abuse, in accordance with all federal, state, and local
laws as well as the Federal Drug Free Schools and Campus Safety
Regulations. The use of alcohol and illicit drugs also poses a health
threat to members of the University community.
Current Policy at UT cont.
Students and campus visitors who have attained the legal drinking age of 21 may
possess and consume alcoholic beverages only at approved University functions or in
residence hall rooms of students who have attained the legal drinking age. Those under
21 are not permitted to consume or possess alcoholic beverages at any time.
Students, employees, and visitors are prohibited from possessing, consuming,
manufacturing, dispensing, or being under the influence of illegal drugs or engaging in
improper self-medication while on University property or University business. As a
condition of employment, employees must abide by this policy. Employees are required to
notify the Associate Vice President for Human Resources of any criminal drug statute
conviction for a violation occurring in the workplace. This notification must occur within
five days after the conviction.
Federal law prohibits the trafficking and illegal possession of controlled substances as
outlined in 21 United States Code, Sections 811 and 844.
Adopted Laws at UT cont.
Ohio Revised Code (O.R.C.) Section 4301.63 provides that no person under the age of
21 shall purchase beer or intoxicating liquor.
O.R.C. Section 4301.632 provides that no person under the age of 21 years shall order,
pay for, share the cost of, or attempt to purchase any beer or intoxicating liquor or
consume any beer or intoxicating liquor in any public place or private place.
O.R.C. Section 4301.633 provides that no person shall knowingly furnish any false
information as to the name, age, or other identification of any person under 21 years of
age for the purpose of obtaining or with the intent to obtain beer or intoxicating liquor for a
person under 21 years of age by purchase or as a gift.
O.R.C. Section 4301.64 prohibits the consumption of any beer or intoxicating liquor in a
motor vehicle.
UT Stats
In 2008, there were 9 calls for service to the hospital due to alcohol poisoning
In 2008, there was one drug related service called reported
All 10 were hospitalized.
In 2008, 80 underage alcohol consumption crimes reported
20 Open alcohol container crimes reported
A record high 12 disorderly conduct crimes due to alcohol reported
In 2008 65 DUI alcohol arrests, down form 109 in 2007
UT Stats cont.
Students spend 5.5million on alcohol a year
This is more than books, soda, coffee, juice, and milk combined
Nation-wide, six college students will die everyday from alcohol related causes
Nearly 14,000 college students die annually in accidents stemming from alcohol
Students can be charged and convicted of DWI for “allowing” an intoxicated person to
Every night from 1am-6am one in every seven drivers are legally drunk
Effects of Alcohol on Our
Progressive Effects of Alcohol
Nervous System
Reproductive System
Immune System
Gastrointestinal System
Circulatory System
College Students and
Marijuana Use
Marijuana Use Cont.
Marijuana is the second most frequent drug used by college students
(alcohol, of course, is first).
A second major problem with marijuana is called amotivational
What is Amotivational Syndrome?
How Students are Effected
Feelings of intoxication
Rapid heartbeat
Dry mouth and throat
Bloodshot or glassy eyes
Loss of coordination or poor sense of balance
Decreased reaction time
Difficulty in listening or speaking
Impaired or reduced short-term memory
Impaired or reduced comprehension
Impairments in learning and memory, perception, * problem solving, and judgment
Altered sense of time Reduced ability to perform tasks requiring concentration and coordination, such as driving a car
Altered motivation and cognition, making the acquisition of new information difficult
Intense anxiety or panic attacks
Psychological dependence
While there hasn’t been much research done to determine the specific effects of marijuana, according to the American
Council for Drug Education there is growing evidence that it may adversely affect the brain, lungs, heart, and immune
system. Potential long-term effects of marijuana use include:
A decreased ability to learn and remember things
Delay of the onset of puberty and decreased sperm production in men
Disrupt the menstrual cycle and inhibit discharge of eggs from the ovaries in females
Damage to the immune system
Increase in cancer rates
Increase in the rates of respiratory problems and disease
Literature Review
 Scholarship on the suppression of college
binge drinking and substance abuse generally
falls into three main categories:
 Individual Focused Prevention
 Social Norms
 Environmental Management
1. Individual Focused Prevention
 Typically designed to increase student
awareness of alcohol related problems.
 Three major categories of individual
factors include:
A. Educational/Awareness programs
B. Cognitive-Behavioral Skills Based Programs
C. Motivation/Feedback-Based Approaches
1A. Educational/Awareness
• Primarily based on the assumption that
students misuse alcohol or other substances
due to the lack of knowledge or awareness of
the risks associated with abuse.
• Maddock’s 1999 meta-analysis found that
these types of programs produce only small
effects on behavior.
1B.Cognitive-behavioral Skills
Based Programs
 Build upon educational or awareness
approaches and incorporate information,
values clarification, and normative
reeducation components.
 Can range from Alcohol-focused skills
training to general life skills.
 Several of these approaches have been
associated with behavioral changes.
1C. Motivational/Feedback
Uses brief individual or group motivational
enhancement approaches incorporating
alcohol information and personalized
A newer field that had yielded some
positive results.
The challenge remains finding a way to
administer these programs to large groups.
2. Social Norms
• Grounded in the observation that college
students overestimate the number of their peers
who drink heavily.
• Social norms campaigns use campus based
media to provide accurate information.
• Studies on social norms programs show the
limitations of parent, faculty, and RA norms, but
show the importance of student peer norms.
3. Environmental management
 A broader focus on the campus and
surrounding environment.
 Traditional approaches accepted the
world as is and teach students only to
avoid its temptations.
 Environmental management seeks to
change the immediate campus and
community environment.
3. Environmental Management:
 Environmental management is intellectually
grounded in the public health field.
Dr. John Snow
 Environmental management seeks to change the
mixed messages about high risk alcohol
consumption in college communities that include:
Failure to check ID’s
Bar and restaurant happy hour promotions
Absence of alcohol-free social and recreational events.
Lax law enforcement
3. Environmental management:
Three spheres on action in which environmental
change strategies can operate:
The Institute of Higher Education
The Surrounding Community
State and Federal Laws and Regulations
In order for this approach to work a participatory
process that includes all major sections of the
campus, the community, and the students.
Best practice: Current effective strategies in
alcohol and other drug prevention
Evaluation of programs at similar institutions
North Dakota State University
University of Alabama
University of Central Florida
Campus Comparisons
University of
North Dakota
State University
University of
University of Central Florida
Campus Comparisons
Percentage of
students: Fall 2007
University of Alabama
Curriculum infusion
 Online learning modules
 Bama-Body shop
 Bama-Wellness
70% of students reported wanting to live healthier lifestyles after
completion of course post-test
Integrated into freshmen seminar
 Mental health liaisons in every academic department
Utilize resource manual
Produce newsletters
(Garner, Hall, Timpf, & Wilcox, 2009)
University of Alabama
 AOD Strategic Team: 4 faculty members
 Education, Environment, & Enforcement
Alcohol EDU
2600 students elected to participate in course
Student tailgate
400 students attended over a two hour period (200 students at
pilot event)
Effort to engage students to change campus culture
(Garner, Hall, Timpf, & Wilcox, 2009)
University of Central Florida
Responsible Retailers
Collaborative initiative between local alcohol vendors and UCF
Restricted hours of operation for bars in violation of serving underage
Over three violations in three months will result in denial of vendors license
Resulted in problem bars wanting to join initiative
Prevented targeting underage drinking by restructuring business plans
Maintain respect for local community
Open house party ordinances
(Garner, Hall, Timpf, & Wilcox, 2009)
North Dakota State University
 Club NDSU framework
Late-night, weekend programming
Held during high risk times
Initiative for culture change
Passive awareness
(Vangsness, & Oster-Aaland, 2009)
North Dakota State University
Club NDSU
Activities for students
On duty police
Attendance ranges from 300-1300 students
Welcome those already under the influence
Message throughout the evening
(Vangsness, & Oster-Aaland, 2009)
North Dakota State University
Assessment of programming
Follow up survey
Attendance data gathered by ID swipe upon entrance
89.5% of those surveyed reported alcohol is not necessary for a good
Personal e-mail reports to student:
How much alcohol they may have consumed
The caloric value of the drinks they would have consumed
The dollar amount they may have spent
Campus Police, RHA, Campus Wellness, Greek Life
(Vangsness, & Oster- Aaland, 2009)
Framework for UofA & UCF
Concentration of awareness
Move from problem focused initiatives to health focused
Engage and make students aware of positive self action
Upon improvement in drinking, inform those routinely exposed to
negative aspect of student drinking
Date given to those who may be predisposed to carrying on the
myths of student drinking
Bystander intervention
Integration of Best Practices
Curriculum infusion
Studies show that students who volunteer are more likely to abstain
from alcohol (Huang, DeJong, Towvim, & Schneider, 2009)
Service learning(SL) integrated into each department's curriculum
Planning for SL activities during high risk times
Promotes growth and civic responsibility as well
Requires little funding
Create a culture of healthy students
Promote benefits of healthy living
Address other areas of health concern
Approach to Recommendations
Three-pronged approach based on the work of
Toomley and Wagenaar (2003).
Increasing adherence to minimum drinking age
Reducing consumption levels and risky alcohol use
among the general population.
De-emphasizing alcohol as a necessary part of
college life and increase expectations about
academics and citizenship.
Increasing Adherence to Minimum
Drinking Age Laws
• Forming an Alliance with local bars and liquor stores to
ensure that they are serving legal aged patrons like the
Responsible Retailers at the University of Central
• Have Campus Newspaper print up local violators.
• Get the community Block Watch organizations
increasingly involved with local retailers.
Reducing Consumption Levels and
Risky Alcohol Use
 Create an information package or website to
ensure responsible off-campus parties.
Can include information about local laws and possible
punishments, recommendations to ensure that all guest
of parties are all of legal drinking age, and that host
employ bar-tenders to limit drinking.
Make all residential halls alcohol free.
Social norms campaign on campus.
Student created media contest involving the Blue Crew
Train residential advisors to correct misinformation
about alcohol and substance abuse.
Increasing Expectations about
Academics and Citizenship
 Service learning.
 Scheduling classes at strategic times.
 Increase the visibility and authority of the
alcohol and substance abuse taskforce.
 Increase communication and interconnectedness
among Academics Affairs, Residential Life, Student
Affairs, Community Members, the Public Health
Department, and Greek Life departments.
DeJong, W., & Langford, L.M. (2002). A typology for campus-based alcohol prevention: Moving towards environmental
management strategies. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 14(Suppl. 14 ), 140-147.
Dejong, W., Vince-Whitman, C., Colthurst, T., Cretella, M., Gilbreath, M., Rosati, M., et al. (1998). Environmental
management: A comprehensive strategy for reducing alcohol and other drug use on college campuses.
MA: The Higher Education Center For Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention Education
Development Center, Inc.
Garner, M., Hall, T., Timpf, K., & Wilcox, D. (2009). Alcohol prevention excellence: Successful strategies from awardwinning campuses. National Association for Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) Annual Conference,
March 8-11,
Huang, J.-H., DeJong, W., Towvim, L.G., & Schneider, S.K. (2009). Sociodemographic and psychobehavioral
characteristic of US college students who abstain from alcohol. Journal of American College Health, 57(4),
395-410. Retrieved February 28, 2009 from EBSCOhost database.
Larimer, M.E., & Cronce, J.M. (2002). Identification, prevention and treatment: A review of individual-focused strategies
to reduce problematic alcohol consumption by college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 14(Suppl.
14 ), 148163.
Perkins, H.W. (2002). Social norms and the prevention of alcohol misuse in collegiate contexts. Journal of Studies on
Alcohol 14(Suppl. 14 ), 164-172.
Toomey, T.L., & Wagenaar, A.C. (2002). Environmental policies to reduce college drinking: Options and research
findings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 14(Suppl. 14 ), 193-205.
Vangsness, J., & Oster-Aaland, L. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of late-night programming through direct and
indirect measures. National Association for Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) Annual Conference,
March 8-11, 2009.
Seattle, WA,
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