Global citizenship
Art, design, and performing arts
Dr Eldrid Herrington
Head of the International Student Experience
London College of Fashion
University of the Arts London
[email protected]
Workshop aims
• Examine how becoming global citizens is
enacted through shared learning experiences
• How excellent teaching constructs learning
experiences to develop global citizens
• Define ‘global citizen’ for UK and
international students studying in the arts
• Consider how institutions, faculty,
departments promote ‘global citizenship’
1. What is ‘global citizenship’?
2. What is ‘global citizenship’ for art, design and
the performing arts?
3. How do institutions, faculty, departments
promote ‘global citizenship’?
Who am I?
• Localize my understanding of global
– Experience
– Role
– Cultural context(s)
Schools at LCF
School of Design and
School of Management
and Science
School of Media and
Graduate School
Academic Development
and Quality Assurance
UAL and its Colleges
Central St Martins (CSM)
London College of Fashion
London College of
Communication (LCC)
Camberwell, Chelsea,
Wimbledon (CCW)
Degree courses at UAL
International students at UAL
• 18,678 students
• 9,080 (49%) non-UK; UK = 9,598 (51%)
• Non-UK by level of study:
– FE 55%
– UG 44%
– PG 67%
• 120 countries
• UG level:
– 88% non-UK retained
– 83% of UK students retained
(UCPU, 2014)
What is global citizenship?
• US context
• Humanities and the liberal arts
– Academy, eg AAC&U
– Intellectual traditions
• UK context
– National universities
– Intellectual traditions: cultural studies
• Internationalization and multiculturalism
• Global cultural economy in universities: 2% population
Martha Nussbaum: global citizenship
• the ability to think for oneself, deferring neither
to tradition nor to authority;
• to think like a "citizen of the world,"
understanding global problems in a nuanced
manner; [see Cultivating Humanity (1997)]
• to cultivate an empathic imagination and see the
world from the perspectives of many types of
Kwame Anthony Appiah: cosmopolitanism
1. We are all responsible for the human community
2. Encounters with other people are not about
making them like us
Critiques: Elitist (able to travel the globe) or bad
nationalist (prefer human to national)
(Appiah, 2007)
AAC&U, Shared Futures: Global
Learning and Social Responsibility
Global learning helps students:
• Gain a deep, comparative knowledge of the world’s peoples and
• Explore the historical legacies that have created the dynamics and
tensions of their world;
• Develop intercultural competencies so they can move across boundaries
and unfamiliar territory and see the world from multiple perspectives;
• Sustain difficult conversations in the face of highly emotional and perhaps
uncongenial differences;
• Understand—and perhaps redefine—democratic principles and practices
within a global context;
• Gain opportunities to engage in practical work with fundamental issues
that affect communities not yet well served by their societies;
• Believe that their actions and ideas will influence the world in which they
• Teaching International Students
• Special Interest Group: Global Citizenship and
Internationalisation of the Curriculum
– Special Interest Sub-Group – art, design and
performing arts
• Internationalising the curriculum framework
Stuart Hall
• The global and the local
• Circuit(s) of culture
• Issues of representation
GC: debates
• Employability in an
increasingly globalized
• Ethics and sustainability
• Curriculum as reflecting
students’ identities and
therefore engaging them
• Extension of subject
knowledges and research
• makes no sense without
• Too broad to be workable,
too relativistic
• About political and
cultural imperialism
• Risk of only viewing issues
through national lenses
(Ali, 2009)
Transcultural identifications call for the creation of
images that represent particular groups and
individuals within those groups. In this process
concepts such as gender, race, ethnicity and
culture also get deconstructed (Hall, 1996), and
new, multiple, shifting and hybrid identities
(Ali, 2009)
Hidden curriculum
• How cultural frameworks have shaped
students’ individual understandings of the
• Localglobal
• Locations within global cultural flows
(Appadurai, 1990)
• Increased understanding entails increased
Natalia Osipova
(see Sulcas and Cooper, 2013)
Nicholas Serota on Global Citizenship
at the Tate (2013)
• Art is a fundamental part of the public realm. In their work,
artists express ideas, attitudes and beliefs. Often, these are
central to politics, society and economics and, through
artistic expression, they gain different resonance and reach.
At Tate Modern, for instance, the juxtaposition of Leon
Golub’s Vietnam II and Dia Al-Azzawi’s Sabra and Shatila
Massacre prompts deep thought about the scars of war.
• Museums and galleries provide spaces in which learning
both through and about art can take place. They build and
show collections that bring different views together and
introduce new ideas and experiences. Recently, Tate has
developed its collections of international art, introducing
audiences to a wider range of conversations.
(Serota, 2013)
• Disrupts the linear relationship between local and global: art forms are no
longer located in one culture
• challenges the centrality of the Western art canon
• decenters nation-states as the primary center of economic activity as
transnational corporations form networks that yield more economic
• facilitates transnationalization of production or subcontracting of goods
and services, including artistic production, around the world;
• spawns an increasingly nomadic community of artists, curators, and
collectors who travel the world creating site-specific artworks, global
exhibitions, and producing various economies of art;
• simultaneously homogenizes the world socially, culturally, and
economically while creating unprecedented fragmentation, and;
• complicates the ways in which people experience cultural and national
identities, making difference a normative aspect of our lives
(Desai, 2005)
Transnational corporations and art
The relationship between art and globalization,
then, is one that challenges the centrality of the
Western art canon, yet both the blockbuster art
exhibitions and the festivals re-affirm national
culture by simultaneously celebrating and
commodifying difference.
(Desai, 2005)
exemplars of global citizenship
When Latitudes Become Forms (2002)
Venice Bienniale (2003)
Documenta 10 (1997)
Documenta 11 (2002)
UAL and LCF contexts
Why global citizenship?
Breaks away from ‘international’/UK divide
Ensures an articulation of the implied student
Emphasizes active commitment
Compels an uncovering of the hidden curriculum;
Draws on students’ cultural capital and
experiences; multicultural
• Considerations beyond the national
• Addresses creativity
Steve McQueen: considerations of the
Yinka Shonibare
We must resist the ‘temptation of defining
artists by the narrow confines of
nationality...the question of globalization and its
political significance of course remains relevant
in an economically divided world. But we must
return now to the work of the imagination and
prioritize the aesthetic and political concerns of
artists rather than their origins’
(Shonibare in Desai, 2005)
University of the Arts London Strategy
2010 – 2015
• To become a truly international university by
building closer academic partnerships with
institutions outside the UK, attracting a
multicultural staff and student community and
developing a curriculum that sustains our global
Key Performance Indicators
• Number of University-wide partnerships
• Number of international students
GC: structure and strategy
Learning and
teaching methods
priorities and
(visualised from Leask, 2009)
LCF: how
Articulation of institutional policy around GC and IoC through papers on Internationalisation
and diversification of the curriculum, which have formed the basis of an action plan
Global Citizen award for staff and for students is being developed
Ringfencing time for curriculum development
Increased staff presence in international conferences with funded support
Input into professional development with the LCF Assistant Dean of Learning and Teaching
and with the UAL Office of Development and Learning
Just-in-time assistance with practical issues for all staff at the College
‘Local’, school-based experts and enthusiasts: International Coordinators in each School
Active links/collaboration with international employers and professional associations through
LCF Careers
staff maintain contact with international industry settings
A strong and culturally diverse course/program team
Individuals’ international experience and personal commitment to and understanding of GC:
captured and shared for both students (as today) and staff
A balanced discourse around internationalisation that does not privilege the economic
A balanced and comprehensive international strategy in both policy and practice
(Adapted from Leask 2012)
student experience: why and how
Alicia and Hena
•‘Home’ / ‘International’ divide does not make sense
•Not just fact of being international but of becoming
•Alicia channelling Stuart Hall: ‘I am becoming a global citizen’
•Alicia’s and Hena’s global citizenship impacts upon their:
–Subject knowledge / practice
Ali, M. (2009) ‘Preparing citizens for a globalized world: The role of the social studies curriculum’, Interamerican
Journal of Education for Democracy. Vol 2 (2): 238-256.
Appiah, K. A. (2007) Cosmopolitanism: Ethics in a world of strangers. New York: Penguin.
Banks, J. (2008) ‘Diversity, group identity, and citizenship education in a global age’. Educational Researcher,
37(3): 129-139.
Bianchi, J. (2011) "Intercultural Identities: Addressing the Global Dimension through Art Education",
International Journal of Art and Design Education, vol. 30 (2): 279-292
Desai, D. (2005) "Places to Go: Challenges to Multicultural Art Education in a Global Economy", Studies in Art
Education, vol. 46 (4): 293-308.
Gaudelli, W. and Hewitt, R. (2010) "The Aesthetic Potential of Global Issues Curriculum", The Journal of
Aesthetic Education, vol. 44 (2): 83-99.
Hall, S. (1996) ‘Introduction: Who needs ‘identity’?’ In S. Hall and P. du Gay (Eds.) Questions of cultural identity.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Kymlicka, W. (2003) ‘Multicultural states and intercultural citizens’. Theory and Research in Education, 1(2): 147169.
Leask, B. (2009). ‘Using formal and informal curricula to improve interactions between home and international
students’. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(2), 205-221.
Leask, B. (2012) ‘Questionnaire on Internationalisation of the Curriculum’. Available at
Mendoza, H.R. and Matyók, T. (2013) "Designing Student Citizenship: Internationalised Education in
Transformative Disciplines", International Journal of Art and Design Education, vol. 32 (2): 215-225.
Nussbaum, M. (1997) Cultivating Humanity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Serota, N. (2013) ‘Nicholas Serota on Global Citizenship: a reminder of art’s role in society’, 3 June. Available at
Sovic, S. and Blythman, M. (2012) International Students Negotiating Higher Education. London: Routledge.
Sulcas, R. and Cooper, M. (2013) ‘Ballet Dancers as Brands’, New York Times, 20 November.
Wood, P. (2008) ‘The impossibility of global citizenship’. In M. O’Sullivan and K. Pashby (Eds.) Citizenship
education in the era of globalization. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.
HEA Global Citizenship SIG
1. Does your institution have an institutional strategy that encourages the development of global
2. Is there an institutional definition/website devoted to the development of global citizenship?
3. If not - have notions of global citizenship been addressed by any Faculties/departments in
terms of their learning objectives? or
4. Are approaches to engendering Global Citizenship threaded through modules or offered via
separate modules?
5. Are these modules offered as credit bearing modules or co-curricular schemes or both?
6. Is student mobility used to develop global citizenship eg: Erasmus? Joint/dual degrees
7. Are students encouraged to take modules in global citizenship? Or are they compulsory?
8. Is language learning embedded in the curriculum?
9. Do Faculty/ departmental websites promote the development of global citizenship?
10. Does your institution have Research Centres/Institutes focused on research into issues
surrounding global citizenship?
Bamford et al. (2013) ‘HEA SIG: Global Citizenship & the Curriculum Theme Group’ [poster]
Questions for discussion
1. What is ‘global citizenship’?
2. What is ‘global citizenship’ for art, design and
the performing arts?
3. How do institutions, faculty, departments
promote ‘global citizenship’?
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