Effective Mentoring
Janice MacInnes
Programme Aims and
• To explore understanding of effective mentoring practice
By the end of the programme, you should be able to:
• Define the term mentoring and differentiate it from other supporting
• Explore motivations for becoming a mentor and/or for being mentored
• Analyse skills and characteristics required for successful mentoring
What is mentoring?
• Work in groups of 4-6 you have 5 minutes
for the exercise
• Go through the cards and decide which of
the definitions describe mentoring
• Discuss the issues this exercise raises
Mentoring - history
Greek mythology:
Ulysses entrusts his son, Telemachus, to
the care of his longstanding friend, Mentor,
to guide and educate him wisely.
Preferred Mentoring Definition
My preferred definition is:
Mentoring is “off-line help by one person to
another in making significant transitions in
knowledge, work and thinking.”
Clutterbuck and Megginson (1999 p17)
Research on Benefits of
• Mentoring is positively related to job satisfaction as
measured by career commitment ….
• …. and to performance and productivity ….
• …. and to career mobility and opportunity …
• …. and to career advancement / promotion ….
• …. the more so for women.
Garvey, Stokes & Megginson (2009)
Other Mentoring Research
Findings (continued)
• Mentoring shown to develop insights / confidence,
but is not related to skills development ...
• … Except when the mentor additionally takes on an
explicitly ‘coaching’ role.
• Mentors can report rejuvenation of own career and
enhanced job satisfaction.
• There is indirect evidence of enhanced performance
by mentors in the opportunity provided to talent-spot
and enhance team strengths.
Clutterbuck, D. (2006)
Pre-conditions for Effective
• Organisational focus
– Positive culture:
• Where collaborative efforts valued.
• Where mentoring consistent with vision & values.
• Good interpersonal skills, including E.I.:
– In both parties.
– Can’t necessarily be assumed.
• Organisational design:
– Corporate level mentoring strategy.
– That allows time for necessary interaction.
– That allows for mentoring to be a priority.
Clutterbuck (2006)
Openness & Mentoring
• Mentoring works best when individuals are open
about themselves and their performance.
• … When they seek feedback.
• … When the organisation creates a culture of
• … Where the appropriate giving and receiving of
feedback is a normal part of organisational life.
• … And where a blame culture is vigorously
Clutterbuck (1992) Clutterbuck & Lane (2004)
Your organisation?
Definition: A willingness to ascribe good intentions to and
have confidence in the words and actions of other
Cook & Wall (1980)
It involves:
Coping with uncertainty – we need to believe in the
person’s good will
Taking risks – we make ourselves vulnerable
Perception – we “trust” others based on a number of
Caproni (2005)
Skills of Mentoring
• ‘Core values’ of
– Vision and goal-clarity
– Supportiveness
– Confidence-building
– Consideration
– Risk orientation
– Patience
– Trust-building
– Openness
Clutterbuck, D. (2006)
• Emotional Intelligence
– Self-awareness
– Self-management
– Social awareness
– Relationship
Transactional Analysis:
Nurturing (+ve)
Spoiling (-ve)
Structuring (+ve)
Critical (-ve)
Co-operative (+ve)
Compliant/resistive (-ve)
Spontaneous (+ve)
Immature (-ve)
Berne, E. (1964) Games People play New york: Grove Press
Caproni, P. Management Skills for Everyday Life New Jersey: Pearson
Clutterbuck, D. (1992) Everyone Needs a Mentor. London: IPM
Clutterbuck, D. (2006) 4th ed. Everyone Needs a Mentor. London: CIPD
Clutterbuck, D. and Lane, G. (2004) The Situational Mentor: Aldershot:
Gower Publishing Company
Clutterbuck, D. and Megginson, D. Mentoring Executives and Directors
Oxford: Butterworth- Heinemann
Garvey, R., Stokes, P., & Megginson, D. (2009) Coaching and Mentoring:
Theory and Practice, London: Sage