The Priming Effect of Brand Names and Slogans with Various Appeals

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Chung Hui Tseng
Tamkang University
Taiwan
April 22, 2013
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I. INTRODUCTION
 Brand names and slogans can be used as effective tools
to improve brand equity and brand identity
 However, few studies have examined the effect of
brand names and slogans separately.
 we empirically investigated the priming effect of
brands and slogans with various appeals.
 The results of this study can contribute to the field of
brand research.
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II. LITERATURE REVIEW
 Researchers have recently found that brand names and
slogans have a subconscious effect on the thinking,
intentions, and behaviors of consumers.
 The priming effect occurs when exposure to a stimulus
influences a response to a subsequent stimulus.
 Exposure to a stimulus can be regarded as exposure to
a brand name or slogan, and a response to a
subsequent stimulus can be regarded as the reaction of
consumers when shopping.
 Therefore, we examined whether the priming effect of
a brand name or slogan is the same.
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II. LITERATURE REVIEW
 Based on the persuasion knowledge model, most
consumers agree that the content of a slogan has a
persuasive purpose.
 If consumers frequently encounter slogans they
disagree with, a mental correction mechanism may
occur in the minds of these consumers.
 The correction mechanism adjusts responses to
subsequent stimuli, and these responses are
inconsistent with the message of the slogan.
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II. LITERATURE REVIEW
 However, most researchers argue that a brand name,
compared with a slogan, is a characteristic of a product
and does not convey an obvious persuasive purpose.
 Therefore, brand names do not illicit mental
corrections in the minds of consumers.
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II. HYPOTHESES DEVELOPMENT
 H1: With a savings appeal, the priming effect of slogans
results in weaker attitudes of consumers than that of brand
names.
 H2: With a savings appeal, the priming effect of slogans
results in lower willingness to pay than that of brand
names.
 H3: With a sharing appeal, the priming effect of slogans
results in lower attitudes of consumers than that of brand
names.
 H4: With a sharing appeal, the priming effect of slogans
results in lower willingness to pay than that of brand
names.
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III. METHODLOGY
 Figure 1 The Research Framework
Sources of Priming
Effect
*Brand Names
*Slogans
Appeal Types
*Saving
*Sharing
Consumers’
Attitude
Consumers’
Willingness to Pay
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III. METHODLOGY
 This study used a 2 (sources of priming effect) x 2
(appeal types) between-subject experimental design.
 The experimental brand names were selected from
famous brands in the local market.
 Using convenience sampling, college students from
two classes were recruited as participants.
 The experimental process included two steps: (a) a
memory test to trigger the priming effect; and (b)
commencing 1 hr after the first step, the participants
had to complete a questionnaire to measure their
reactions to the brand names and slogans.
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III. METHODLOGY
The savings appeal in our experiment
 Watsons (a local cosmeceutical store) versus its slogan,
“We will refund the money if our price is more expensive
than other stores,”
 Tsann Kuen (a local 3C hypermarket) versus its slogan,
“We help you save more money rather than cutting the
price to the bottom.”
The sharing appeal in our experiment
 Maxwell (a coffee brand) versus its slogan, “Share good
things with good friends,”
 Nestle (a coffee brand) versus its slogan, “I would like to
drink a cup of coffee with you even though I am so busy.”
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IV. RESULTS
 A total of 122 valid questionnaires were collected,
including 61 valid questionnaires from the savings
appeals group and 61 valid questionnaires from the
sharing appeals group.
 To test the hypotheses of savings appeals, two
MANOVAs (Tables 1 and 2) were used to analyze the
data. H1 & H2 were supported.
 To test the hypotheses of the sharing appeal, two
additional MANOVAs (Tables 3 and 4) were used for
data analysis.  H3 & H4 were not supported.
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V. CONCLUSION
 The attitudes and willingness to pay of consumers toward
slogans are weaker than those toward brand names in a
savings appeal, whereas their reactions toward slogans are
stronger than those toward brand names in a sharing
appeal.
 The results indicate that mental correction is triggered by
the savings appeal, and not by the sharing appeal.
 In other words, consumers tend to be persuaded by
messages from the sharing appeal, and not from the
savings appeal.
 In brief, the mental correction mechanism in the minds of
consumers may be influenced by various types of appeals.
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V. CONCLUSION
 We suggest that future studies include various appeals,
brand names, and slogans to contribute to the
generalization of this theme.
 Our results may be limited to the convenient sampling
of college students. Future studies must research
various samples to determine whether the results are
consistent with those provided by our study.
 Finally, a number of brand names are occasionally
included in the content of their slogans; therefore, it is
useful to examine the priming effect of these types of
slogans.
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Thank you!
Tseng, Chung Hui
Assistant Professor
Department of International Business
Tamkang University
Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
E-mail: [email protected]
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