Taming the City
• The challenge of urban growth was felt first and most
acutely in Britain.
• In the 1820s and 30s people in France and Britain began
to worry about the condition of their cities.
• Rapid urbanization without any public transportation
worsened already poor living conditions in cities in the
nineteenth century.
• Government was slow to improve sanitation and building
• Advances in public health, urban planning, and urban
transport improved these conditions by 1900.
• Edwin Chadwick in England advocated improved sewage
• Louis Pasteur in France discovered that bacteria caused
disease (1860s).
• In Paris and other European cities urban planners demolished
buildings and medieval walls to create wide boulevards and
public parks.
• Mass public transport, including electric streetcars, enabled city
dwellers to live further from the city center, relieving
Rich and Poor and Those in Between
Social Structure
• Wealth was distributed very unevenly throughout Europe.
• Only 20 percent of the population was middle class or wealthy.
The Middle Classes
• The urban middle class was diverse.
• The upper middle class included the most successful industrialists,
bankers, and merchants. Increasingly, it merged with the aristocracy.
• Middle ranks included doctors, lawyers, and moderately successful
bankers and industrialists.
• The lower middle class included small business owners, salespeople,
store managers, clerks, and other white-collar employees.
Middle-Class Culture
• Middle-class people were loosely united by a certain style of life and
• They were also united by a shared code of behavior and morality.
The Working Classes
• Skilled workers lived very different lives from the semiskilled and
• Skilled workers’ income approached that of the lower middle classes.
• Skilled workers tended to embrace the middle-class moral code.
• Semiskilled and unskilled workers included many different
occupations, from carpenters and bricklayers to longshoremen, street
vendors, and domestic servants.
• Domestic servants were a large proportion of the population.
Working-Class Leisure and Religion
• Working-class leisure included drinking in taverns; watching sports,
especially racing and soccer; and attending music hall performances.
• Working-class church attendance declined in the nineteenth century.
The Changing Family
• Premarital Sex and Marriage
• For the middle classes, economic considerations
continued to be paramount in choosing marriage partners
through most of the nineteenth century.
• Increasing economic well-being allowed members of the
working class to select marriage partners based more on
• Prostitution
• Prostitution was common.
• Middle- and upper-class men frequently visited
• Kinship Ties
• Kinship ties helped working-class people to cope with sickness,
unemployment, death, and old age.
• Gender Roles and Family Life
• The status of women changed during the nineteenth century.
• The division of labor became more defined by gender.
• Economic inferiority led some women to organize for equality and
women’s rights.
• As society increasingly relegated women to the domestic sphere, women
gained control over household finances and the education of children.
• Married couples developed stronger emotional ties to each other.
• E. Child Rearing
• Attitudes toward children also changed during this period.
• Emotional ties between mothers and infants deepened.
• There was more breast-feeding and less swaddling and abandonment of
• Increased connection often meant increased control, including attempts
to repress the child’s sexuality (for example, to prevent masturbation).
Sister Suffragette
The life I lead
Feed the Birds
Science and Thought
• The Triumph of Science
• Theoretical discoveries resulted in practical benefits, as in chemistry and
• Scientific achievements gave science considerable prestige.
• Social Science and Evolution
• Charles Darwin formulated his theory of evolution by natural selection.
• New “social sciences” used data collected by states to test theories.
• Auguste Comte’s “positivism” presented the scientific method as the
pinnacle of human intellectual achievement.
• Social Darwinists such as Spencer applied Darwin’s ideas to human
• Realism in Literature
• The Realist movement in literature reflected the ethos of European
• This was an expression of writers who sought to depict life as it really
• Realism stressed the hereditary and environmental determinants of
human behavior.
Students should be able to:
• Explain how advances in public health and the development of public
transportation systems improved health and sanitation even as the
cities of Europe and North America grew at an explosive rate.
• Discuss the diversity of the so-called “middle class” and “working
class” and explain the strict moral code that skilled workers and
members of the middle class tended to endorse.
• Discuss the importance of prostitution in the cities, the continuing trend
toward “separate spheres” of male and female life, and the
connections among industrialization, decreasing family size, and more
intense care for children.
• Summarize Darwin’s theory of natural selection, Auguste Comte’s
positivism, and the meaning of “realism” in nineteenth century
European literature.

Life in the Emerging Urban Society