Year 10 GCSE PE Lesson 4 Learning Skills Learning Objectives • Be able to explain the stages of learning a new skill. • Be able to explain the different types of practices that can be used when learning a new skill Starter 1. Draw a diagram explaining the information processing model •2 . Define the term feedback and explain the importance of it to an athlete. • 3. There are two types of feedback what are they? • 4 name the two components of feedback what are they and give an example for each of your answers Answers to Starter KP and KR KP KR Knowing how you performed regardless of result Tells you what you achieved but not how you did it Knowledge of Results • David Beckham knows his free kick is successful from the information he receives from the crowds reaction, team mates and coach Tennis Match the more times the shot is played, the more feedback you will get. The more feedback you get, the better the chance of success Decide what shot to play INPUT How fast the ball is coming and where your opponent is OUTPUT select to play lob FEEDBACK Player cannot get the ball back , your point Skill Development When we choose to move, the action is controlled by the conscious brain using a collection of learned movements. For the movement to progress successfully, the athlete requires information feedback. HOW DO WE LEARN NEW SKILLS DISCUSS? GUIDANCE When you are learning a new skill you usually need help or GUIDANCE from a coach, teacher, trainer or friend There are 3 types of Guidance can you name them? Guidance VISUAL THIS IS THE GUIDANCE YOU CAN LOOK AT Guidance MANUAL THIS IS THE GUIDANCE YOU CAN FEEL VERBAL THIS IS THE GUIDANCE YOU CAN LISTEN TO Origami Challenge • Origami challenge using visual and verbal guidance. Types of Skill • Cognitive - or intellectual skills that require thought processes • Perceptual - interpretation of presented information • Motor - movement and muscle control • Perceptual Motor - involve the thought, interpretation and movement skills Phases To Learning A NEW SKILL • Fitts and Posner (1967) suggested that the learning process is sequential and that we move through specific phases as we learn 1.Cognitive phase 2.Associative phase 3. Autonomous phase Cognitive Phase • Identification and development of the component parts of the skill • involves formation of a mental picture of the skill Associative Phase • Linking the component parts into a smooth action. • Involves practicing the skill and using feedback to perfect the skill Autonomous Phase • Developing the learned skill so that it becomes automatic. • Involves little or no conscious thought or attention whilst performing the skill - not all performers reach this stage Skill Development • The learning of physical skills requires the relevant movements to be assembled, component by component. • Using feedback to shape and polish them into a smooth action. • Rehearsal of the skill must be done regularly and correctly. How do you learn a new skill. • There are several different ways that skills can be learnt:- • Part Method: • Whole Method • Variable Practice • Fixed Practice Whole Practice • Repeating the skill as one exercise, without breaking it up into parts (subroutines). Sometimes the skill cannot be broken down easily • Somersault • For example dribbling in football • Start dive in swimming • Catching a ball Part Practice • This is where you break the skill into separate manageable parts. • Parts broken down into SUB-ROUTINES • You practice each component individually • This is a very common way of learning a skill. • Think of a skill from a sport where this practice is necessary? The Tennis Serve • • • • • The grip of the racket The Stance How to throw up the ball The Swing Follow through Variable Practice • This type of practice is important when learning OPEN SKILLS • It is when you practice the skill in lots of different settings. In pairs discuss and come up with 3 different sporting examples Examples of Variable Practice • Cricketer playing shots according to the type and speed of the delivery he receives. Fixed Practice • This is the type of practice that is used for learning CLOSED SKILLS • Skill repeated under the same enviromental conditions. • Think of 3 sporting examples Fixed Practice • For example a golfer will practice his long Iron or driver shots repeatedly. • The setting of the skill remains the same Transferring skills into a game situation Skills need to transfer into game situations and coaches use two training methods to develop tactics and strategies: • Modified games use different rules or formats to give players plenty of contact with the ball, eg five-a-side football. • Conditioned games have rule changes that focus on specific skills or tactics, eg two-touch football to develop control and passing. Summary • Every time you perform a skill you get information from your body. • You will make a decision on what to do next based on previous experiences and this will alter your previous performance. • This means that if the output was not successful, the next time you are in a similar situation you may select a different skill to make your performance better. • If the outcome was successful more likely to try it again in a similar situation.