Chapter 16 _Political Revolutions in Europe

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THE WORLD’S HISTORY
Fourth Edition
Chapter
16
Political Revolutions In
Europe and the Americas
1649 – 1830
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Political Revolutions in Europe and
the Americas Political Revolution
• Political revolution changes fundamental
basis of government
– Apparent unity can shift rapidly
– Revolutions often based on a coalition
– Threshold of victory can bring crisis
– Struggle to gain power within coalition often
more brutal than effort to end prior system
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Political Revolution
• English, American and French Revolutions
are all labeled “democratic” by analysts
– These revolutions share common traits
– Slogans included liberty, equality, fraternity,
natural rights, pursuit of happiness, property,
no taxation without representation
– Outcomes often different than stated goals
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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Human Rights in the Age of
Enlightenment
• Philosophical Rationales
– Thomas Hobbes
 Saw origins of government in brutal life without
government
• Life in nature--solitary, nasty, brutish, and short
 Made a social contract to natural world
 To break contract was to return to state of nature
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Human Rights in the Age of
Enlightenment
• Philosophical Rationales [cont.]
– John Locke, 2nd Treatise on Government
 Social contract the origin of government
 State of nature a benevolent place
 Right of revolution if gov’t violates human rights
 Majority rule of property holders the key concern
 Role of government is to protect property
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Human Rights in the Age of
Enlightenment
• Study of Scientific Revolution a “new” field
• Characteristics of the Revolution
– Rise of a community instead of individuals
– Development of new methods
 Reliance on mathematics
 Empiricism
 Technology present in equipment use
 Freedom of inquiry
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Human Rights in the Age of
Enlightenment
• Intellectual Revolutions in Science &
Philosophy
– Copernicus revises the universe
 Placed sun at center of solar system for simplicity
 Feared impact from Church which accepted a
geocentric view
 Published findings on his deathbed
– Tyco Brahe offered complex geocentric model
– Conflict between religious and mathematical
astronomers
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Human Rights in the Age of
Enlightenment
• Intellectual Revolutions in Science &
Philosophy
– Galileo added observations and new
technology to the debate and supported
geocentric view
– Newton developed calculus
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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England’s Glorious Revolution, 1688
• Unauthorized taxes by Charles I lead to
civil war & Charles’ execution in 1649
• Oliver Cromwell leads Puritans to victory
and rules as Lord Protector to 1658
• Civil War establishes principle that
monarchy can be abolished
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Howard Spodek
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England’s Glorious Revolution, 1688
• The Bill of Rights, 1689
– Parliament rejects Stuarts for William & Mary
in 1688
– New monarchs sign Bill of Rights in 1689
 No taxes raised or armies recruited without
approval of Parliament
 No subject can be detained without due process
 King cannot suspend laws on his own
 Reality is government by male property owners
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Philosophes & Enlightenment
in the 18th Century
• Philosophes want to use science & reason
to solve problems in politics & economics
• Ideas are in American and French
Revolutions
• Were influenced by travel and knowledge
of other cultures
• Most were deists in religion
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Philosophes & Enlightenment
in the 18th Century
• Believed in Progress and the perfectibility
of mankind
• Encyclopedia of Diderot is famous product
• Voltaire--freedom of liberty, press, inquiry
• Enlightened Despotism
– Good government does not require selfgovernment; rationale used by colonial
powers
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Philosophes & Enlightenment
in the 18th Century
• Rousseau skeptical about self-government
– Promotes idea of General Will which sounds
close to tyranny in minds of critics
– Is unclear about how to achieve it
• Adam Smith
– Promoted free trade
– Envy of wealth necessitated protection of
private property
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Revolution in North America, 1776
• Americans resent British control from
1760s onward
• British policy built of large army in North
America and taxation to support it
• Grievances lead to Declaration of
Independence, 1776
– It asserts same concerns as English on eve of
the Glorious Revolution
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Howard Spodek
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Revolution in North America, 1776
• Constitution and Bill of Rights, 1789
– Constitution creates federal government
– Bill of Rights goes beyond British model to
add freedom of press, religion, assembly, and
right to bear arms
– Approach tied to four American factors
 1) Settlers were religious dissenters; 2) abundant
land; 3) absence of privileged classes; 4) world
had become more radical with new political ideas
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Revolution in North America, 1776
• The First Anti-Imperial Revolution
– Represented rejection of colonial rule
– But westward movement created American
imperial ambition
– Still, American Revolution inspired many
subsequent revolutions such as Nehru in
India
– Not a complete political revolution; many
groups left out but ideal of equality emerges
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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All rights reserved.
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• American Revolution was unique--4 million
people, edge of continent, no tradition of
class or clerical privilege, built on tradition
of British liberty
• French Revolution was internal revolt
against entrenched elites & monarchy, in
most populous & powerful European
nation
• All Europe affected by French Revolution
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• Origins of Revolution
– King’s need for revenue
– France was divided into three Estates
– Nobles and clergy were tax exempt
• Revolt of the Third Estate
– Want to turn Estates-General into legislature
– Sieyes, What is the Third Estate?
– Want delegates to meet as unicameral legs.
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Howard Spodek
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• The Revolt of the Poor
– Events occur against backdrop of food
shortage
 Assault on Bastille, July 14, 1789
 Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
 Great Fear in the countryside
 Women’s March on Versailles, Oct. 5-6, 1789
– Constitution of 1791
 Reflects ideals of philosophes
 Promulgated after wave of protests
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• International War, the 2nd Revolution and
the Terror, 1791-99
– French actions threaten Europe
 Civil Constitution of the Clergy
– Europe attacks the Revolution, 1792
– Poor attempt to kill Louis XVI, August 9, 1792
– Legislature turns radical after September
elections
 Reign of Terror
 Levee en masse (national military draft)
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• International War, the 2nd Revolution, and
the Terror, 1791-99 [cont.]
– Radical actions under Robespierre
 New Calendar
 Worship of the Supreme Being
– Success in war prompts reaction against
extreme measures
 Directory established, 1795
 Napoleon to power, 1799
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• Napoleon in Power, 1799-1812
– Consolidates or extends revolutionary ideas
 Code Napoleon, 1804
 “careers open to talent”
 Concordat with Pope
 Full citizenship for Protestants and Jews
 Actions reflect his own modest origins
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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French Revolution & Napoleon,
1789-1812
• Napoleonic Wars & the Spread of
Revolution, 1799-1812
– Direct or indirect control of Europe by 1810
– Flaws in his policies magnified by ambition
 Unsuccessful in war against Britain
 Defeated in invasion of Russia, 1812
 Nationalism undermines his control of W. Europe
 Defeated and exiled, 1814 & 1815
 Congress of Vienna creates balance of power,
1815
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Haiti: Slave Revolution & Overthrow
of Colonialism
• Caribbean Slave revolts commonly
suppressed
• Hispaniola, French sugar colony, saw
40,000 whites in control of 500,000 black
slaves
• Slaves escape brutality physically by
maroonage (flight) and psychologically
through vodoun (voodoo)
• Network of resistance begins in 1750s
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Howard Spodek
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Haiti: Slave Revolution & Overthrow
of Colonialism
• The Slave Revolt
– Begins in 1791 perhaps with inspiration from
American and French revolutions
– French revolution outlaws slavery, 1794
– Toussaint L’Ouverture leads revolt to success
– Napoleonic attempt to restore French control
fails despite use of 20,000 troops
– Final independence of Haiti declared in 1804
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Abolition of Slavery
and the Slave Trade
• Fear of Haiti-style revolts leads British to
abolish slavery, 1807
• U. S. abolished international slave trade in
1808 but retains slavery until Civil War
• Slavery abolished in Puerto Rico, 1876, in
Cuba, 1886, & in Brazil, 1888
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The End of Colonialism in Latin
America, 1810-30
• Independence Movements
– Revolts led by creole elites, direct
descendents of original Spanish settlers
 Helped Spain & Portugal put down Indian revolts
– Creole fear of indigenous population helped
spur drive to independence
– Revolts led by creoles were for their control of
countries & enjoyment of Enlightenment
ideals
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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The End of Colonialism in Latin
America, 1810-30
• After Independence
– Bolivar & the Challenge of Unification
 Led independence movements after French
invasion of Spain
• Active in Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Columbia
 Hoped for a unified South America but got local
caudillo rule
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The End of Colonialism in Latin
America, 1810-30
• After Independence [cont.]
– Mexico
 Early Mexican movement opposed Creoles leaders
 By 1821 independence creoles were in charge
 Territory lost to U.S. and to breakaway nations
– Brazil
 Portuguese monarch fled Napoleon for Brazil
 Brazil made co-equal with Portugal
 Brazil became a monarchy
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The End of Colonialism in Latin
America, 1810-30
• After Independence [cont.]
– Paraguay: The New Historiography
 Dictactor Francia strongly criticized by creoles and
gained a bad reputation
 Revolution based on self-government & land
distribution
 Efforts to defeat Paraguay as a source of
inspiration for Argentines and others met with
failure
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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The End of Colonialism in Latin
America, 1810-30
• Religious & Economic Issues
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
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Political Revolutions:
What Difference Do They Make?
• Each Revolution has a clear outcome
– British created constitutional rights, failed to
extend them to America, but abolished
slavery
– Philosophes inspired subsequent revolutions
– Americans promoted freedom but not for all
– Lat. America: political but not econ. freedom
• French Revolution is the exception
– Idea of revolution but prefigures 20th century
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
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