• 19th century

• 1870-1880’s

• Paris, France

• Term comes from Monet’s painting


• Photography invented in 1826 affected the art world

• Rejected by art critics

• First total artistic revolution since the


• Radical change from traditional art schools

– Salon Art Exhibition

• Departs from tradition by rejecting

– Renaissance perspective,

– Balance

– idealized figures

– Chiaroscuro

– Religious, historical, or mythological subjects

• Exhibited their Art Independently

• Represented immediate visual sensations through color and light

• All started as Realists


• Realistic, everyday scenes

• Painted outdoors “en plein air”

• Short “broken” brush strokes

• Overall visual effects instead of details

• Mixed and pure unmixed colour.

• Immediacy and Movement

• Interest in Light and colour

• Optical Mixing of colour

• Doesn’t use black, uses complimentaries to make shadows and highlights

“No shadow is black, it always has a color. Nature knows only color, white and black are not colors.”

• Monet

• Degas

• Pissarro

• Rodin

• Cassat


Eduardo Manet

• Father of Modern Art

• Had a great influence on the

Impressionist movement

• Never exhibited with the Impressionists

• Attempted to exhibit at the Salon

• Utilized Black in his work

• Wanted viewer to look at his paintings, not through them like a window

Eduardo Manet, Luncheon on the Grass ,1863

Luncheon on the Grass

• Marked him as a “danger” to public morality

• Based on Renaissance paintings

– Triangle composition

– Still life

– Illusion of depth

• Her contemporary look and direct gaze made it scandalous

• Nude female in an everyday setting with two clothed men.

Eduardo Manet, Gare Saint-Lazare , 1873

Gare Saint-Lazare

• No chiaroscuro

• Light source

• Layout of depth/composition

• Dichotomy of the two figures

• Cropped like a photo

• No black

• Eduardo Manet, The Waitress , 1878

The Waitress

• Looser, longer brushstrokes

• Directional Snapshot effect

• Lots of movement give impression of scene

Manet, Bar at Folies Bergere

Claude Monet

• Leader of Impressionism

• Only painted outside

• Did not paint objects, only the colors he saw

• Optical Mixing/Broken Color

– Putting pure color next to each other so they are visually blended

• Basis for Impressionist theories of color and light

• Painted many series of the same subject

Claude Monet, Argenteuil , 1872

Monet, Rouen Cathedral

• Did 30+ paintings

• Depicted the heavy massive stone as only light and color

Monet, Water Lily

Monet, Houses of Parliment

Monet, Venice Twilight

Monet, Waterlilies

Monet, The Water Lily Pond

Camille Pissarro

• Father of the Impressionists

• Only artist to show work at all 8

Impressionist Exhibitions

• Oldest member

• Considered both an Impressionist and Post-


Pissarro, Boulevard at Night

• Liked to paint street scenes from second story windows

• Shimmering light and color of the busy street

• Wanted to capture the instantaneous sensation of the scene

Boulevard at Night

Pissarro, Country

Pissarro, Portrait of Madame Pissarro Sewing at a Window

Pissarro, Sunset at St. Charles

Pissarro, Portrait of a Pork Butcher

Edgar Degas

• Different than most Impressionists

• Did not like to paint outside

“Art is not a sport.”

• Carefully considered design and positioning of people and objects

• Master of line and drawing

• First artist to display his pastel drawings as finished works

• Did many drawing of the Ballet Dancers

Degas, Rehearsal on the Stage ,1874

• Softness of costumes is contrasted with lines and edges of figures and background

• Seemingly unbalanced composition

– Asymmetrical feel

• Creates a feeling of immediacy and unplanned

• Uses pastel to convey the color and excitement of ballet

Rehearsal on the Stage

Degas, Carriage at the Races ,1873

Carriage at the Races

• Used a great sense of design

• Painted outdoors

• High-keyed palette

• Contrasts with darker tones

• Horse and carriage are off-center to give the feeling of a momentary glimpse

• Balanced by partial carriage on left

Degas ,The Absinthe Drinker ,1876

• Shows darker side of


• Looks like snapshot, yet is carefully planned

• Diagonals draw viewer in

The Absinthe Drinker

Degas, Dance at the Moulin de la Galette Montmarte,


Degas, In the Meadow , 1892

Degas, Blue Ballerinas

Degas, The Rehersal

Degas, The Dancers

Degas, The Star

Mary Cassatt

• American Artist

• Traveled to Paris to study Impressionism

• Portrayed the social and Private Lives of


– Mother and Children

• Highly influenced by Degas

Cassatt, Breakfast in Bed

Cassatt, Woman with a Pearl Necklace

Cassatt, In the Box

Cassatt, At the Theatre

Cassatt, La Toilette