Impressionism

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Impressionism

• 19th century

• 1870-1880’s

• Paris, France

• Term comes from Monet’s painting

Impression-Sunrise

• Photography invented in 1826 affected the art world

• Rejected by art critics

• First total artistic revolution since the

Renaissance

• Radical change from traditional art schools

– Salon Art Exhibition

• Departs from tradition by rejecting

– Renaissance perspective,

– Balance

– idealized figures

– Chiaroscuro

– Religious, historical, or mythological subjects

• Exhibited their Art Independently

• Represented immediate visual sensations through color and light

• All started as Realists

Characteristics

• Realistic, everyday scenes

• Painted outdoors “en plein air”

• Short “broken” brush strokes

• Overall visual effects instead of details

• Mixed and pure unmixed colour.

• Immediacy and Movement

• Interest in Light and colour

• Optical Mixing of colour

• Doesn’t use black, uses complimentaries to make shadows and highlights

“No shadow is black, it always has a color. Nature knows only color, white and black are not colors.”

• Monet

• Degas

• Pissarro

• Rodin

• Cassat

Artists

Eduardo Manet

• Father of Modern Art

• Had a great influence on the

Impressionist movement

• Never exhibited with the Impressionists

• Attempted to exhibit at the Salon

• Utilized Black in his work

• Wanted viewer to look

at

his paintings, not through them like a window

Eduardo Manet,

Luncheon on the Grass

,1863

Luncheon on the Grass

• Marked him as a “danger” to public morality

• Based on Renaissance paintings

– Triangle composition

– Still life

– Illusion of depth

• Her contemporary look and direct gaze made it scandalous

• Nude female in an everyday setting with two clothed men.

Eduardo Manet,

Gare Saint-Lazare

, 1873

Gare Saint-Lazare

• No chiaroscuro

• Light source

• Layout of depth/composition

• Dichotomy of the two figures

• Cropped like a photo

• No black

• Eduardo Manet,

The Waitress

, 1878

The Waitress

• Looser, longer brushstrokes

• Directional Snapshot effect

• Lots of movement give impression of scene

Manet,

Bar at Folies Bergere

Claude Monet

• Leader of Impressionism

• Only painted outside

• Did not paint objects, only the colors he saw

• Optical Mixing/Broken Color

– Putting pure color next to each other so they are visually blended

• Basis for Impressionist theories of color and light

• Painted many series of the same subject

Claude Monet,

Argenteuil

, 1872

Monet,

Rouen Cathedral

• Did 30+ paintings

• Depicted the heavy massive stone as only light and color

Monet,

Water Lily

Monet,

Houses of Parliment

Monet,

Venice Twilight

Monet,

Waterlilies

Monet,

The Water Lily Pond

Camille Pissarro

• Father of the Impressionists

• Only artist to show work at all 8

Impressionist Exhibitions

• Oldest member

• Considered both an Impressionist and Post-

Impressionist

Pissarro,

Boulevard at Night

• Liked to paint street scenes from second story windows

• Shimmering light and color of the busy street

• Wanted to capture the instantaneous sensation of the scene

Boulevard at Night

Pissarro,

Country

Pissarro,

Portrait of Madame Pissarro Sewing at a Window

Pissarro,

Sunset at St. Charles

Pissarro,

Portrait of a Pork Butcher

Edgar Degas

• Different than most Impressionists

• Did not like to paint outside

“Art is not a sport.”

• Carefully considered design and positioning of people and objects

• Master of line and drawing

• First artist to display his pastel drawings as finished works

• Did many drawing of the Ballet Dancers

Degas,

Rehearsal on the Stage

,1874

• Softness of costumes is contrasted with lines and edges of figures and background

• Seemingly unbalanced composition

– Asymmetrical feel

• Creates a feeling of immediacy and unplanned

• Uses pastel to convey the color and excitement of ballet

Rehearsal on the Stage

Degas,

Carriage at the Races

,1873

Carriage at the Races

• Used a great sense of design

• Painted outdoors

• High-keyed palette

• Contrasts with darker tones

• Horse and carriage are off-center to give the feeling of a momentary glimpse

• Balanced by partial carriage on left

Degas

,The Absinthe Drinker

,1876

• Shows darker side of

Paris

• Looks like snapshot, yet is carefully planned

• Diagonals draw viewer in

The Absinthe Drinker

Degas,

Dance at the Moulin de la Galette Montmarte,

1876

Degas,

In the Meadow

, 1892

Degas,

Blue Ballerinas

Degas,

The Rehersal

Degas,

The Dancers

Degas,

The Star

Mary Cassatt

• American Artist

• Traveled to Paris to study Impressionism

• Portrayed the social and Private Lives of

Women

– Mother and Children

• Highly influenced by Degas

Cassatt,

Breakfast in Bed

Cassatt, Woman with a Pearl Necklace

Cassatt,

In the Box

Cassatt,

At the Theatre

Cassatt,

La Toilette

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