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THE WORLD’S HISTORY
Fourth Edition
Chapter
15
Migration
Demographic Changes
in a New Global World
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Migration
• Demography: human populations viewed
collectively and quantitatively
• Migrations: the movement of large groups
of people across geographic space
• Approach gives opportunity to study lives
of average people
• Requires new “tool kit” related to
capabilities of computers
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• Rise of European global influence, 15001750
– Power of traders & of European nation-states
– Trade shift to Atlantic
– Increased military technology & organization
– Wealth from the “New World”
– Slavery
– Spread of Aggressive Christianity
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• Columbian Exchange of Plants, Animals &
Disease
– Diseases kill up to 90% of Amerindian
population after contact with Europe
– Positive aspects of Columbian Exchange
 Food from the Americas: white potato,
cassava, sweet potato & maize
 Food from Europe: wheat and
domesticated animals such as cattle, sheep
& pigs
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• North America
– Spain in decline by early 1600s
– New settlers--English, Dutch, French--failed to
find easy wealth
– Labor shortages cause land giveaways and
indentured servitude, the precursor of slavery
 Needed for farming cash crops
 Needed to replace loss of workers to high
death rates
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• North America [cont.]
– New England attracts religious refugees
in collective settlements
– Pennsylvania attracted diverse
settlement because of religious
tolerance
– French make numerous small
settlements
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• The Antipodes: Australia and New
Zealand
– Few outside contacts until Captain Cook
(1768)
– British see Australia as dumping ground for
criminals (an earlier North American role)
– Harsh living conditions prevail until 1868 with
the end of systematic transportation of
convicts
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• The Antipodes [cont.]
– European arrivals destroy fragile ecology of
aboriginal civilization
– Australian Aborigines initially retreat in face of
European invasion but ultimately resist over
period of ten years
 British believe Aborigines cannot be made to work
 Surviving remnant now lives on reservations
– Similar pattern in New Zealand with the
Maoris
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
The “New Europes”
• South Africa, 1642-1902
– Dutch East India Company first to enter South
Africa (1652)
– Settlements include 60,000 folks of whom 1/3
were white (1795)
 Predominant African people are Khoikhoi & San
– British took the area to keep it out of French
hands; Dutch formally ceded it in 1814
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Slavery: Enforced Migration,
1500-1750
• More migrants from Africa (as slaves) than
from Europe (as free) in this period
• Slavery had existed since Roman times
• Reorientation of trade routes to Atlantic
put Europeans in control of slave trade
• Importance of slaves increases with
growth of Caribbean sugar plantations
• Were often worked to death
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Slavery: Enforced Migration,
1500-1750
• Reinterpreting the Slave Trades
– Slavery important in Africa
 Slaves were main form of wealth
 Were a source of wealth through labor
 Slave trade was lucrative
– European slave trade built on African trade
– Impact of trade on Africa is in dispute
including relative impact on population and
loss of opportunity to develop society
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• Conquests of western Europeans and
central Asians show remarkable
similarities
– Occur at the same time
– Traveled equally vast distances
– Were ruthless in conquest
– Sought to impose their own culture on
others
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• Differences in western European and
central Asian conquests
– Defeated Asians did not suffer diseases
that swept away populations in the
Americas
– Asians had limits on their ability to
impose culture
– Asian empires in decline by 18th century
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• The Ottoman Empire, 1300-1700
– Rise of Ottomans paralleled rise of Spain
– Turks rely on gazis, sufis and janissaries
– Move into Europe by early 1500s
– Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566)
reached gates of Vienna
– Population grew from 12-13 million in 1520 to
60-70 million in 1600
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• India: The Mughal Empire, 1526-1707
– Mughals begin invasion of India in 1526
– Are a combination of Mongols & Turks
– Major success under Akbar (r. 1556-1605),
India’s greatest ruler
– Ruthless, he massacred entire population of
30,00- at Chitor in 1568
– Based taxes on thorough survey of resources
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• India: The Mughal Empire [cont.]
– Tempered conquest of India with conciliation
of Hindu population
– Proclaimed personal religion of Din-I-Ilahi that
combined Islam, Hinduism and Parsi
– Became respected emperor of all Hindustan
– Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) squandered the
achievements and ended reign with Mughals
in weakened position
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• Safavid Persia, 1400-1700
– Mongols & Turks devastated and repopulated
Persia in 13th century
– Timur the Lame (r. 1336-1405) extended
Mongol rule from Turkey through N. India
– Called Safavid, followers of Shaykh Safi alDin
– Shah Abbas (1588-16290 brought in western
technology to try to hold on to power
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Asia Migrations, 1300-1750
• China: Ming & Manchu Dynasties
– Mongol (Yuan) dynasty, 1271-1368
– Followed by Ming who try to accommodate
Mongols to the north
– Invasions in 1644 bring Qing dynasty
(Manchurians) to power (last until 1911)
– Qing expand Chinese borders
– Population sustained by crops from Americas
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Global Population Growth
and Movement
• Population growth is result & cause of
social change
• European population tripled, 1000-1700
• Slave trade reduced African population
• Native American population decimated
• Europeans flood outside world, 18201930. European growth is fastest in
history
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cities and Demographics
• Delhi/Shahjahanabad
– Each Mughal emperor build own capital
city
– Akbar’s grandson rebuilt Delhi as
Shahjahanabad; population reached 2
million
– Religious, military and administrative
center
– Had the appearance of “nomadic court”
with “tents of stone”
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cities and Demographics
• Isfahan (Iran)
– Became capital in 1598
– Had 2 1/2 mile walkway & large public square
– Major center for craftsmanship
– Shah Abbas opposed Ottomans and tolerated
European religious groups
– Powerful neighbors insured that empire was
militarized
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cities and Demographics
• Constantinople (Istanbul)
– Had been capital of much-reduced Byzantine
Empire and became capital of Ottoman
Empire
– A conurbation three major segments
– Braudel calls Istanbul the prototype of later
European capitals
– Became economic backwater with shift of
trade to the Atlantic
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cities and Demographics
• London
– London grew as these other cities declined
(approximately 1700)
 London’s growth promoted national market
 Stimulated agricultural production
 Developed use of coal
 Created new commercial instruments
 Increased productivity and purchasing power
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Cities and Demographics
• London [cont.]
– High immigration and death rates kept
English population growth low
– London’s growth stimulated new ideas
about economics and its importance
– London avoided the parasitism that
often plagued imperial capitals
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
Migration and Demography
• Demography helps explain patterns in
history
– Growth of “New Europes”
– Re-evaluation of slave trade
– Comparison of Mongol-Turkic and European
patterns
– Compared political and trade oriented capitals
• Migration issues continue today
The World’s History, Fourth Edition
Howard Spodek
Copyright ©2010, ©2006 by Pearson Education, Inc.
All rights reserved.
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