Introduction to International Relations:

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I. What’s new?
current events: primary sources
II. Do words matter?
debate
III. How we got here? (start here?)
in-depth group projects on specific countries
simulations; documentaries and feature films
IV. Who does what and how?
the “reconstruction stimulation”
role playing
V. To what end?
progress reports on countries; utube
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Since early 1990s, “statebuilding” has become
centerpiece of international efforts to stabilize
violent conflicts
US involved in Balkans, Afghanistan, Iraq
“International community” involved in
numerous other war torn countries
US domestic and foreign policy
Important countries and ongoing events
World Affairs
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Post-WWII history
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The Cold War
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Germany/Japan
“nationbuilding”
US-Soviet stalemate
The post-Cold War
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“Western mission”
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The development and
changes in the UN
Agenda for Peace
(1992)shift from
peacekeeping to peace
operations
Contemporary cases
Foreign Affairs
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EU since 2000: leading
efforts in the Balkans
Other international
actors: World Bank,
IMF
International
nongovernmental
organizations
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Statebuilding= reconstruction of polities and
economies (McMahon & Western)
Nationbuilding= the use of armed forces in the
aftermath of conflict to underpin an enduring
transition to democracy (Dobbins)
Empire building =tendency of a country to
acquire land/resources to increase own power
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Peacebuilding
Post-conflict reconstruction and development
Stabilization
Neocolonialism
Debate: What should “it” be called and why it
matters?
Surge in demand:
The Cold War’s end 1989/91 and then post 9/11
“idealism”
1.
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1989-2000: 111 conflicts, 104 internal conflicts
1990-1994: 26 deadly conflicts
The role of the media: Robert Kaplan, “Coming
Anarchy” (1994)
2. The Cases
 Former Yugoslavia,
1992-1999
 “ethnic” nature
 Surprising number of
killings
 No superpower or
institution to respond
 “Not again”:
European genocide
3. The Failed State Phenomenon
During the 1990s, the rise of “failed states” or states which
cannot or will not safeguard minimal civil conditions”
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Why might states fail? Why is the US not considered the
“most stable of states”?
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Foreign Policy index
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12 social, economic, political and military indicators
Rank states, compare different areas and to note changes.
Weakest states: Africa, Asia, EE and Latin America
4. Changes in Global Institutions and Norms
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New structure: bipolar to multipolar
Changes and developments in UN
New norms about “humanitarian intervention”
New ideas about security, peace and “new world
order”
How has the world changed? Is it a good thing for the
US and Americans?
5. The Events of 9/11
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After 9/11: foreign policy
shift to “idealism”:
missionary role of U.S.
Link made between need
for nation building and
terrorism, failed states and
terrorists, WMD
Post CW period: US
involved in (roughly) about
one new NB every other
year
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Reconstructing North Korea
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When to act?
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Who should act?
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Role playing
How should it be done? What should be first?
Who is in charge? What are the outcomes
sought? What are the 4 central tasks?
Security
1.
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Prevent violence
Take guns out of the
hands of individuals
Create
“transparency”
Reintegration
strategy: “golden
parachutes”
Law and Order
2. Political Transition/Institutional
Development
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Deciding the “rules of the game”
Interim administration: temporary governance, often
shared with the international community (UN)
Elections: quickly or wait?
Emphasis on being inclusive and representative
Help to create institutions
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Belquis Ahmadi
If so, how should these ideals be
promoted ?
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Civil society = public space that allows a
variety of actors to mediate (stand between)
relations between citizens and state authorities
How to promote/encourage this space?
How to promote a free but also responsible
media?
3. (Economic) Development
Overcome the legacy of war economy
 Need for civil service to help
 Establish economic priorities
 Community development
 Development of state functions: public good
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Refugee/displaced
persons: Kosovo
1998: almost ½
Albanian population
became refugees
(population of 1.7 m)
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4. Reconciliation and Rehabilitation/Justice
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Strengthening/renewing social networks
Empowering individuals and rebuilding socially and
psychologically
What should the goals be?
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Justice?
Forgiveness?
Reconciliation?
Can we expect that individuals will ever heal and
move forward?
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How much force is necessary?
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Does money make a difference?
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What kinds of external involvement matters
the most?
How do you evaluate outcomes?
The Agents
 The UN “system” (4)
 The US
 NATO
 EU
 Non-government Organizations: NGOs
 Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE)
 Certain actors more than others?
Recent research by Rand: UN better at
learning/statebuilding than the US
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Defining success
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How to pick and choose “cases”
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The problem of civil war/failed states
No “exact” formula/blueprint
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Stable country
Human security: are people better off
No relapse w/in 5 years
Democratic
Pro US
One interested country matters the most
Key to success:
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domestic (rather than external) actors, conditions, will
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Benchmarks for success?
Develop a bill for the cost of statebuilding and
debate its worth
What are the alternatives to statebuilding or
helping rebuild war torn countries?
When should the US be involved?
When – if ever – should it lead these
international effort?
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Foreign Affairs, Foreign Policy
The New York Times, International Herald
Tribune,
Organization for Security and Cooperation in
Europe (OSCE)
U.S. Department of State
European Union
Country website
UN websites: UNMIK. Org
NGO networks
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Invite serviceman/woman to talk
Watch a movie:
Welcome to Sarajevo
 No Man’s Land
 Hotel Rwanda
 Triumph of Evil (great documentary)
 The Hurt Locker
 Kandahar
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Invite member of the community from one of
these countries
Download
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