Luke - Evidence for Christianity

The Book of Luke
Robert Carrillo MDiv
Dr. John Oakes
May 3, 2014
San Diego State
Theme of Luke/Acts
God’s salvation, as predicted by the
prophets has arrived in the coming of
the Messiah—Jesus of Nazareth. He is
the savior of the world and this
salvation is now spreading throughout
the world (including that of the
Gentiles, of course).
Outline of Luke
I Prologue 1:1-4
II Birth account of Jesus 1:5-2:52
III Preparation for Jesus’ ministry 3:1-4:13
IV The Galilean Ministry 4:14-9:50
V Journey to Jerusalem 9:51-19:27
VI Conflict and Controversy in Jerusalem
VII Passion and Death of Jesus 22:1-23:56
VIII The Resurrection and Ascension 24:1-53
Features Unique to Luke
Historical details
Universal appeal of the gospel
Jesus’ concern for outsiders, the poor,
“sinners”, Samaritans
Reversal of fortune
Emphasis on role of women in Jesus’ ministry
Jesus described as Savior
Use of Isaiah and the promise of a Savior for
all people
Emphasis on the journey to Jerusalem
Features of Luke (cont.)
Jesus as a man of prayer
Use of the word “today” in reference to
Emphasis on the coming of a new age
Emphasis on the Holy Spirit and its role in
bringing in the Kingdom of God
Explanation of Continuity with the Old
Emphasis on the training of the apostles
Luke As An Historian
1. Only Luke mentions written sources for his
gospel (Luke 1:1)
2. Luke takes extraordinary care to give
historical context to his account.
3. Luke takes extraordinary care in his
investigation of the facts, including interviews
with multiple eye-witnesses (Luke 1:2-3) and
a “more orderly” account.
4. Luke gives a detailed genealogy, but he
does so through Jesus’ father rather than
through Jesus’ mother.
Historical Events Unique to Luke
Vision of Zechariah and birth of John.
Visit of Mary to Elizabeth
Angel’s visit to Mary
Census of Augustus.
Shepherd’s visit.
Jesus’ presentation at the temple.
Jesus at the temple at the age of twelve.
Resurrection appearance at Emmaus.
I. Prologue Luke 1:1-4
Sets out the purpose of the gospel, which is to
confirm the truth of the gospel, particularly its
historical reliability. Very formal Hellenistic
style intended to impress the Greek reader
with its historical value.
II. Birth Narrative Luke 1:5-2:52
Theme of this section: The arrival of
God’s promised Savior and the
fulfillment of God’s prophets and
The Messianic Expectation is being
Birth Narrative
Jesus fulfills the expectation of the pious Jewish
messianic expectation.
Zechariah and Elizabeth (middle aged) have observed
all the Lord’s commands. Luke 1:6
Mary and Joseph (young), humble servants of God,
faithfully fulfill the command for purification and
Simeon (very old), extremely devout, waiting for the
expected Messiah.
Anna, the female equivalent of Simeon, devoted to
worship, fasting and prayer.
Zechariah, Elizabeth and John
Luke 1:6 They are upright and observant.
But… 1:7 Elizabeth was barren.
1:18 She is “well along in years.”
A pattern—a connection to the OT:
Rachel/Joseph (Genesis 30:22-23)
Zechariah, Elizabeth and John
Luke 1:19, 13 Good news!
If we will be upright and observant,
The old will be productive
The barren will be fruitful
Our disgrace will be taken away (Luke 1:25)
Q: How has/will God done these things in your
Luke and John the Baptist
Luke 1:13-17 John is the one preparing the way for the
His birth and ministry fulfills the final prophecy in the
OT (Malachi 4:5). JTB is a bridge between OT and NT.
1:15 He will be filled with the Holy Spirit.
The period of silence has ended. The Kingdom of God is
at hand!
1:17 …in the spirit and power of Elijah.
John the Baptist is the antitype to Elijah
(which explains Mat 11:14 and Mat 17:12)
Luke and John the Baptist
Luke 1:76-79 A prophet and the one to fulfill
Malachi 3:1 and Isaiah 40:3-5
Malachi 3:1 See, I will send my messenger,
who will prepare the way before me. Then
suddenly the Lord you are seeking will come
to his temple: the message of the covenant,
whom you desire, will come.
Isaiah 40:3-5 A voice of one calling in the
desert, “Prepare the way for the Lord.”
Mary: The Favored of the Lord
Facts about Mary:
She was very young.
She was female.
She was poor.
She was defenseless
and vulnerable
Mary: The Favored of the Lord
What does God say about Mary? Luke 1:26-28
1. You are highly favored.
2. God is with you.
Why Mary? Luke 1:38 Luke 1:45 (a great memory verse)
Good News:
The old will be productive
The barren will be fruitful
Our disgrace will be removed
We will be greatly favored and God will be with us
If we will: Be righteous and observant
Believe that what the Lord has said will be accomplished
Luke and Salvation
Q: What does it mean to be saved?
Luke 1:67-79
Zechariah’s Song
v. 71 rescue from those who hate us.
v. 79 knowledge, light in darkness
Luke 2:8-12 A Savior is born
Luke 2:28-32 Simeon
revelation for the Gentiles
glory for God’s people
Luke 3:1-6
John the Baptist
one who will make what is crooked straight
Luke and Salvation
Luke 7:36-50
A sinful woman is saved, but a Pharisee is lost
Luke 18:18-30
A righteous rich ruler is lost, but those who give
up everything will be saved (even though they don’t
have very much)
Luke 19:5-9
The lowest of the low is saved.
Acts 4:8-12
Salvation in the name of Jesus.
Luke and Salvation
Acts 2:38-40 Save yourselves from this
corrupt generation.
We can save ourselves? We are saved from
the corruption of this world.
Joel Green:
Salvation embraces the totality of embodied life,
including its social, economic and political concerns.
For Luke, the God of Israel is the Great Benefactor
whose redemptive purpose is manifest in the career of
Jesus, whose message is that this benefaction enables
and inspires new ways of living in the world.
The Birth of Jesus
Jesus’ birth turns everything upside down. He
breaks all human expectations.
Luke 1:51-53
He has performed mighty deeds with his arm;
He has scattered those who are proud in their
inmost thoughts
He has brought down the rulers from their
thrones but has lifted up the humble
He has filled the hungry with good things
but has sent the rich away empty.
The Birth of Jesus
Announced to lowly
shepherds (Luke 2:17)
A ministry of salvation
(Luke 2:11, 30)
A light to the Gentiles
(Luke 2:32)
A sign spoken against
(Luke 2:34)
Jesus at the Temple Luke 2:41-52
A transition from his birth to
his ministry—part of Luke’s
“orderly account.”
Isaiah 11:1-2 begins to be
Jesus begins to sense his
unique role
Jesus submits to his parents
Jesus’ submission to God
begins to overtake his
submission to his parents.
III. Preparation for Jesus’ Ministry
John’s role? Luke 3:4-6 To
prepare the way. Isaiah
40:3-5 (note: “all mankind
will see God’s salvation)
John’s message? Luke 3:714 Repent. Parallels with
the Sermon on the Mount.
John’s sign? Jesus will
baptize with the Holy Spirit.
Baptism and Genealogy of Jesus
Luke emphasizes the descent of the Holy Spirit.
(Luke 3:22)
To Luke, the baptism (when he received the Holy
Spirit) is the beginning of Jesus’ ministry (Luke
Luke’s genealogy (unlike Matthew’s):
1. Begins with Adam, not Abraham (to
emphasize the universal nature of his ministry)
2. Goes through Joseph, not Mary
Temptation of Jesus
Final preparation for Jesus’ public
An essential part of his preparation
(Hebrews 4:15, Hebrews 2:17-18)
Where the first Adam failed, the
“second Adam” overcame
temptation, thus qualifying himself
to be the Savior of all.
IV. Jesus’ Galilean Ministry
Luke 4:14 Jesus returns to Galilee in the
power of the Spirit.
Luke 4:16-30 Jesus’ first sermon (in Luke,
Q: What will the message of his first sermon
Jesus Brings Good News
Luke 4:18-19 Isaiah 61:1-2
1. Good news for the poor
2. Freedom for prisoners
3. Healing for the sick.
4. Release the oppressed.
5. The favor of the Lord.
Jesus: “Today this Scripture is
fulfilled in your hearing”
The People’s Response
Luke 4:22 Amazed… “What happened to the
kid we knew growing up?”
Jesus (not impressed) The Gentiles will be
saved before you!
Luke 4:28 Furious...
This incident is a foreshadow of his entire
ministry and death of Jesus of Nazareth.
Luke 4:31-44 Jesus fulfills Isaiah 61:1-2
Jesus frees the prisoners (Luke 4:31-37)
Jesus heals the sick (Luke 4:38-44, 5:12-14,
Jesus releases the oppressed (Luke 4:41)
Jesus proclaims the Lord’s favor (Luke 4:43)
All this is used to point to the breaking out of
the Kingdom of God (Luke 4:43)
Prayer and Power
Luke 3:21-22 Jesus was praying and the Holy
Spirit descended on him.
Luke 4:1 Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit
Luke 4:14 … in the power of the Spirit
Luke 4:42 At daybreak Jesus went out to a
solitary place. (after healing a lot of people)
Luke 5:15 Many healings, lots of prayer.
Luke 5:17 And the power of the Lord was
present for him to heal the sick.
Luke 6:19 Power was coming from him and
he was healing them all.
Luke 5:1-11, 27-31
Jesus Calls the Disciples
Luke records the miraculous catch of fish (unlike
Mark and Matthew)
Jesus chooses ordinary
What does a disciple do?
They leave everything.
(Luke 5:11)
They catch men.
(Luke 5:10)
Luke 5:27-32
Jesus Calls Sinners to be His Disciples
Jesus calls Levi (Matthew)
Who is Jesus hanging out with? The
Pharisees? NO!!
A crowd of tax-collectors
Luke 5:31 Good news for (those who admit
that they are) sinners.
Opposition to the Son of God
Luke 4:28-30 (after telling them that God will show
favor to Gentiles) Tried to kill him
Luke 5:21 (after healing a paralytic man and claiming
to be able to forgive sins) Accused of blasphemy
Luke 5:30-32 (after a banquet at Levi’s house) A
friend of “sinners.”
Luke 6:11 (after healing on the Sabbath). They were
furious with rage and began to discuss what they might
do to Jesus (ie. how to kill him).
Who Will Be in the Kingdom?
The Poor, the Despised and the Outcast
An outsider—a Centurion—has more faith than anyone
in Israel (Luke 7:1-10)
A poor widow’s son is raised from the dead (7:11-17)
A prostitute is praised (Luke 7:36-50)
Luke 18:9-14 Parable of the Pharisee and the tax
Luke 15:11-32 the Prodigal Son
Luke 19:1-10 Zacchaeus
Luke 23:39-43 Repentant thief on the cross
“Those who have been forgiven much love much and
those who think they need little forgiveness love little
(Luke 7:47)
The Poor are Saved Before the Rich
The rich fool Luke 12:13-21
Invite the poor, the lame and the blind to your
banquets. Luke 14:12-13
The Pharisees sin? They are lovers of money
Luke 16:14
The Parable of the rich man and Lazarus
Luke 16:19-31
The Samaritans are Preferred to the Jews
James and John rebuked for calling fire down
on a Samaritan village Luke 9:51-16
The Parable of the Good Samaritan
The only leper who returns to thank Jesus is a
Samaritan Luke 17:11-19
Women Come Into the Kingdom
Before Men
Luke lists 13 women not mentioned in the
other Gospels
Women with great faith:
Widow of Nain Luke 7:12-15
Woman who anoints Jesus’ feet
Luke 7:36-50
Jesus and Women
Women supported Jesus financially
Woman healed of bleeding
Mary and Martha
Luke 8:1-3
Luke 8:43-48
Luke 10:38-42
Crippled woman healed on the Sabbath Luke 13:10-17
The poor widow
Luke 21:1-4
Women were the chief witnesses and comforters of
Jesus at the crucifixion Luke 23:49
Women were the first to witness the resurrection Luke
Jesus Announces the Coming of the
Luke 5:33-39 New wineskin. Luke 5:39 And
no one after drinking the old wine wants the
new, for he says, “The old is better.”
Luke 6:1-10 Jesus is Lord of the Sabbath.
The coming of the Kingdom is much more
important than the Sabbath.
Luke 6:17-49
The Sermon on the Level Place
Luke 6: 17-49 Radical Kingdom Ethics.
Theme: In the Kingdom of God there will be a radical
kind of love and righteousness which will greatly
exceed that required by the Law of Moses.
Who is blessed in the Kingdom of God?
This matches Luke’s theme perfectly!
What is valuable in the Kingdom
is despised in the world
The Upside-down Kingdom of God
6:24 the rich
already have their comfort!
6:25a the well fed
will go spiritually hungry
6:25b those who laugh
will mourn
6:26 those well thought of
will be at the bottom
Jesus spells out the upside-down kingdom
Love your enemies 6:27-36
Praise those who curse you
Give to those who take from you
Luke 6:36 In doing these things you will simply be
acting like God.
Luke 7
Jesus Practices What He Just Preached
Luke 7:1-9 Jesus praises an outsider—a
Luke 7:11-17 Jesus raises the son of a poor
Luke 7:36-50 Jesus praises and forgives a
sinful woman.
Luke 7 (and elsewhere) Who is Jesus?
Luke 4:21 He is the prophesied Messiah.
Luke 7:16-17 A great prophet (because of his miracles)
Luke 7:18-35
The prophesied Messiah
Luke 8:28 Who is it who commands even the winds and
the water?
Luke 9:9 Herod Antipas: Who is this?
At the end of the Galilean ministry, we find out who
Jesus is. Luke 9:18-27.
This announcement is the culmination of his ministry
and the thing which launches his journey to Jerusalem.
Oops! We got ahead of ourselves
Luke 8: Harbingers of the Kingdom
1. Parable of the Sower
Luke 8:1-15
2. Jesus’ spiritual family
Luke 8:19-21
3. Jesus calms the storm
Luke 8:22-25
Jesus Lord of
4. Healing of Legion Jesus Lord over spiritual
relams Luke 8:26-39
5. Healing of the woman with bleeding
Healing as compassion Luke 8:40-56
Luke 9:28-51
Transition to the Journey to Jerusalem
Luke 9:30 They spoke about his departure,
which he was about to bring to fulfillment at
Luke 9:44 “Listen carefully to what I am
about to tell you: The Son of Man is going to
be betrayed into the hands of men.”
Luke 9:51 Jesus resolutely set out for
The die is cast. The end is near. The Savior
must due in Jerusalem.