THE ROAD TO WORLD WAR I Guided Reading Activity Answers IMPERIALISM We have already studied Imperialism as a foreign policy – when a stronger, more powerful nation takes over a weaker nation either militarily or economically. But did you know imperialism (and colonialism, as well) led to fierce competition between powerful nations? European powers often found themselves desiring the conquest of the same places – and this led to wars! Closer to home, you might consider the United States’ war with Spain, which took place exclusively in Spain’s colonies: Cuba, the Philippines, and Puerto Rico, not in the United States or Spain. IMPERIALISM CAUSED COMPETITIONS FOR MILITARY STRENGTH: MILITARISM! MILITARISM Nations followed a policy of militarism – or the glorification of the military – in order to accomplish two goals. First, they sought to protect themselves from an enemy attack. Secondly, though, they sought national glory and conquest – like the takeover of foreign nations. Here, you can see how European powers used military force to take control of – and keep control of – most of the continent of Africa. France, England, Germany, and Italy controlled much of Africa until the 1960s. NATIONALISM Nationalism is just pride in one’s nation or ethnic group. It might be compared to patriotism in a way. But when groups of people who do not have a p o l i t i ca l country of their own to rule start to demand their own country, it can lead to major c o n f l i ct s . R e v o l u t i on s , e v e n ! A u s t ri a Hungary faced just this p r o b l em i n t h e late 1800s and early 1900s. THE AUSTROHUNGARIAN EMPIRE The AustroH u n g a ri a n e m p i r e s u f f e re d because of too much n a t i o n a l is m . I n the empire, there were Austrians, M a g y a rs , Bosnians, Serbians, Rumanians, Croats, and a host of other ethnic and national groups who wanted selfg o v e r n m en t , o r their own national g o v e r n m en t s . THE BALKAN PENINSULA The Balkan p e n i n s u la , c o n s i s ti n g o f Greece, Albania, Serbia, and a p l e t h o ra o f other national groups who sought selfg o v e r n m en t a n d i n d ep e n d en c e , w a s c o n s i d er ed the “powder keg” of Europe. Many people b e l i ev e d t h e s e groups would someday fight for i n d ep e n d en c e from colonial r u l e rs . MILITARY ALLIANCES Military A l l i a n c es w e r e defensive agreements c r e a t e d b e t w e en nations in w h i ch a n a t i o n p l e d g ed t o defend all of the others in the group in the event that they were attacked by an outsider. MILITARY ALLIANCES Not only did m i l i t a ry a l l i a n ce s c a u s e s m a l l er w a r s t o erupt into much l a r g er c o n f l i c ts rapidly, but also, they led to confusion. Nations became i n v o l v ed w i t h w a r s w h i ch often had little to do with their own national s e c u ri t y o r i n t e r es t s . THE M.A.I.N. CAUSES OF WORLD WAR I MILITARISM ALLIANCE SYSTEMS IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE The three nations in the Triple Alliance were: Germany AustriaHungary Italy NOTE: Italy had promised to protect Germany only against French invasion, and did not join the w a r e f f o rt against England and Russia. THE TRIPLE ENTENTE The Triple Entente – entente is a French word meaning “agreement” – c o n s i s te d o f these three nations: France Great Britain Russia EUROPE – 1914 THE SPARK THAT SET OFF THE GREAT WAR The Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie were assassinated during a parade in Sarajevo. The murderer, Gavrilo Princip, was a member of a Serbian Nationalist organization called The Black Hand. AustriaHungary blamed all of Serbia for the murders, and took revenge. Franz’s dying words to his wife Sophie: “You must live for the children.” WAR BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND SERBIA Gavrilo Princip, pictured to the left, murdered the Archduke of Austria-Hungary. The AustroHungarian Empire, led by Emperor Franz Joseph soon sent a list of demands to Serbia – most of which were impossible to satisfy – and threatened to declare war on Serbia if they were not met. Little did Austria Hungary know that tiny Serbia had signed a secret treaty – a defense alliance – with Russia, the most populous and one of the most powerful nations in all of Europe. The war would expand rapidly from here. EUROPE AT WAR, 1914 1. Austria-Hungary invaded Serbia. 2. Russia declared war on AustriaHungary. (Secret Alliance with Serbia.) 3. Germany declared war on Russia. (Triple Alliance) 4. France declared war on Germany. (Triple Entente) 5. England declared war on Germany. (Triple Entente) 6. Italy – divided – begins to fight France but then quits the war – only to later support the Allies... EUROPE AT WAR 1914 The map to the left shows the t r a d i ti o n a l v i e w of World War I and its p r i n ci p l e combatants. The Central Powers: Germany, AustriaHungary, B u l g a ri a , a n d the Ottoman Empire, are s h a d ed i n green. The A l l i es – England, France, Russia, and wishywashy Italy – are shaded in yellow. STALEMATE ON THE WESTERN FRONT The Battle of the Marne The Western Front TRENCH WARFARE MURDEROUS WEAPONS OF WW I The U-Boat The Zeppelin MURDEROUS WEAPONS OF WW I Biplanes Tanks POISON GAS CHLORINE GAS Chlorine gas and other forms of poison gas were first used by the Germans at the Battle of Ypres in France. The weapon was perhaps the most feared of the entire war, because of the gruesome and painful deaths caused by the chemicals – soldiers who inhaled the poison gas would suffer chemical burns of the lungs, then slowly drown as their lungs filled up with mucus and fluids. GAS MASKS Horses were used during World War I in many c a p a c i t i es , a n d were still relied upon heavily by cavalry units, s u p p l y c a r r i e rs a n d a m b u l a n ce s e r v i ce s . T h ey d r a g g ed h e a v y guns into position, moved men and e q u i p m en t , a n d l i t e ra l ly s a v e d lives. Hence, t h e y n e e d ed t o be protected, too! THE MACHINE GUN PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON President Wilson asked Americans to stay neutral in mind as well as in action. By following a “strict and impartial neutrality,” Americans would be able to stay out of the war and r e m a i n u n i f i ed . Many Americans feared that the millions of GermanAmerican i m m i g ra n t s i n our country could prove d i s l oy a l . WORLD WAR I: AMERICAN NEUTRALITY Anti-German Propaganda: Freedom of the Seas: PROPAGANDA Propaganda was produced in the United States by an organization known as the Committee on Public Information. Joseph Creel was the leader of the group. Propaganda, in general, is information designed to make a people feel passionately about a cause – often using incomplete, exaggerated, or dubious information. BUSINESSMEN AND BANKERS TENDED TO PREFER TRADE AND LOANS TO THE ALLIES . Businessmen Bankers American Businessmen attempted to trade with both sides during World War I from 1914 to 1917. British blockades and German U-boats, however, took a toll on US Trade. American bankers had loaned out millions and millions of dollars to European nations, most of them to the Allied Powers. After the war, some people claimed that American supported the Allies just to win back their money. THE GERMAN BLOCKADE OF ENGLAND Using their U-boats, Germany established a blockade around all of England to prevent trade between the US and England. They sank any trade vessels they could. English naval vessels, in turn, prevented any trade between the United States and Germany. THE SINKING OF THE LUSITANIA : MAY 7, 1915 OFF THE COAST OF IRELAND GERMANY WARNED THAT THE LUSITANIA MIGHT BE SUNK – IT WAS FULL OF WEAPONS. AMERICANS WERE OUTRAGED NEVERTHELESS. AMERICAN PROPAGANDA MA KERS USED THE SI NKING OF THE LUSITANIA TO E NCOURAGE THE WA R E FFORT. WILSON MAINTAINS U.S. NEUTRALITY “He Kept Us Out of War.” THE ZIMMERMANN TELEGRAM In the Zimmermann Telegram, German Secretary of State Arthur Zimmermann suggested that Mexico should attack the United States. His hope was that if the US was occupied at home by a domestic war, they could not enter the war with Germany. In return, Zimmerman promised, they would help Mexico win back the land it had ceded to the United States in the 1848 Treaty of GuadalupeHidalgo. THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION In March 1917, the Tsar Nicholas II and the Romanov dynasty was overthrown by Revolutio n. The family had fallen under the “spell” of Rasputin – “the mad monk” – who had the mysterious ability to control Alexei’s - the heir to the throne’s hemophilia. The Romanov’s were initially overthrown by democratic reformers led by Alexander Kerensk y. The new government – an elected Duma with Kerensk y as president - remained in power for just six months . The Bolshevik s, a brutally violent communist organiz ation, would take over the country just six months later, murdering the Romanov family and establis hing a totalitarian regime which would last for seventy years. TSAR NICHOLAS II AND THE ROMANOVS THE RISE OF BOLSHEVISM AND THE USSR Promising “Land, Bread, and Peace,” the Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik Party took over Russia in October of 1917. The Bolsheviks would fight a bloody Civil War, take power, and establish a ruthless dictatorship which murdered millions as it established a nationalized Communist dictatorship. The Romanov family was murdered in 1918. THE COMMUNIST PARTY WORLD WAR I: “TO MAKE THE WORLD SAFE FOR DEMOCRACY” Woodrow Wilson asked Congress to declare war against the Central Powers in April of 1917, immediately after the Tsar had been overthrown and replaced by the democratically elected Duma. Wilson gave the United States several reasons to fight in World War I: World War I would be a war for “Freedom of the Seas.” World War I would be “A War To End all War.” World War I would be “A War to Make the World Safe for Democracy.” Since Russia was now democratic as well, all of the Allies – Great Britain, France, Russia, and now the United States – were democratic governments.