Private media, bias and how news effects public
Private vs. Public
How do Television networks get money to run their
Through advertising.
How do public networks gain their money?
Pledge drives
PBS, and NPR.
Who owns what?
Can I have your
attention please?
Networks have to gain large audiences
Larger audience = more profit
The Reporter’s role.
Search for sensational, odd stories
Expose corruption, or scandal
Follow Justin Bieber.
Long factual stories tend to score low.
Boring “talking heads”
Marauders Map?
Although reporters do track
stories down, they are leaked
stories often as well.
Watergate – investigative
President Clinton, Monica
Lewinsky affair – leaked.
Why leak information?
Trial Balloon: information
leaked to an audience to
observe the reaction.
Under fire
For war stories now, and
for global news, there are
imbedded reporters.
Those who are imbedded
in military units to
observe wars and give
first-hand accounts.
Why is it important to
have reporters living
abroad, and living in
Give your report
Newscasts now contain sound bites, accompanied by
analysis of what has been said.
Full speeches are shown live, and never shown again in
their entirety.
The President is given 8 seconds of uninterrupted
talking time
In 1968 it was a total of 43 seconds.
Broadcasting channels can refuse to show speeches
and leave them to the narrowcast channels.
Fox opted out of Healthcare address for Dancing with
the Stars.
Its fine by us (bias)
Media outlets tend to
lean more left
40% identify liberal
25% identify
This bias feeds into a
need for excitement
A reporter can be
wrong, but never
Fox news clip
The Agenda Setters
Agenda Setting Effect:
Media increases attention to certain criteria
The public evaluates their leadership based on this
Job creation, deaths in a conflict, etc.
Can phrase stories differently to influence opinions
Talking briefly on successes of troop surge in Iraq
Focusing on plummeting economy
What will the public focus on more?
More effects
Watchdog Effect
Reporters view it as their responsibility to keep
politicians honest.
Expose corruption, and fact check statistics
62% say it is the press’ job to keep politics honest
22% say it gets in the way of politicians doing their jobs.
Political Entrepreneurs
See to effect the policy agenda.
Policy agenda: issues that grab the attention of those
who are involved in politics
Gay marriage rights, gun control, and immigration
How do they effect agenda?
Press releases, press conferences, letter writing, and
convincing reporters to take their side.
Other ways groups gain attention
Staging large dramatic events such as protests, or
extreme displays.
1.) In the past 20 years, the media in the United States has
undergone a transformation from “broadcasting” to
a.) Describe the difference between broadcasting and
b.) Describe how narrowcasting affects bias in the media.
c.) Describe how narrowcasting can affect the media’s
ability to influence public opinion.