And…cut! Private media, bias and how news effects public opinion. Private vs. Public How do Television networks get money to run their networks? Through advertising. Problem?? How do public networks gain their money? Donations Pledge drives PBS, and NPR. Who owns what? http://www.neatorama.com/2008/07/07/who-ownswhat-on-television/ Can I have your attention please? Networks have to gain large audiences Larger audience = more profit The Reporter’s role. Search for sensational, odd stories Expose corruption, or scandal Follow Justin Bieber. Long factual stories tend to score low. Boring “talking heads” Marauders Map? Although reporters do track stories down, they are leaked stories often as well. Watergate – investigative expose President Clinton, Monica Lewinsky affair – leaked. Why leak information? Trial Balloon: information leaked to an audience to observe the reaction. Under fire For war stories now, and for global news, there are imbedded reporters. Those who are imbedded in military units to observe wars and give first-hand accounts. Why is it important to have reporters living abroad, and living in units? Give your report Newscasts now contain sound bites, accompanied by analysis of what has been said. Full speeches are shown live, and never shown again in their entirety. The President is given 8 seconds of uninterrupted talking time In 1968 it was a total of 43 seconds. Broadcasting channels can refuse to show speeches and leave them to the narrowcast channels. Fox opted out of Healthcare address for Dancing with the Stars. Its fine by us (bias) Media outlets tend to lean more left 40% identify liberal 25% identify conservative This bias feeds into a need for excitement A reporter can be wrong, but never boring. Fox news clip yesterday. The Agenda Setters Agenda Setting Effect: Media increases attention to certain criteria The public evaluates their leadership based on this criteria. Job creation, deaths in a conflict, etc. Can phrase stories differently to influence opinions Talking briefly on successes of troop surge in Iraq Focusing on plummeting economy What will the public focus on more? More effects Watchdog Effect Reporters view it as their responsibility to keep politicians honest. Expose corruption, and fact check statistics 62% say it is the press’ job to keep politics honest 22% say it gets in the way of politicians doing their jobs. Political Entrepreneurs See to effect the policy agenda. Policy agenda: issues that grab the attention of those who are involved in politics Gay marriage rights, gun control, and immigration reform. How do they effect agenda? Press releases, press conferences, letter writing, and convincing reporters to take their side. Other ways groups gain attention Staging large dramatic events such as protests, or extreme displays. 1.) In the past 20 years, the media in the United States has undergone a transformation from “broadcasting” to “narrowcasting.” a.) Describe the difference between broadcasting and narrowcasting. b.) Describe how narrowcasting affects bias in the media. c.) Describe how narrowcasting can affect the media’s ability to influence public opinion.