Short Story and Literary Terms Project

Alex Stringfellow, Julia Whitney, Kush Patel, Daniel Luddeke,
Alex Austin
 Third Person Limited Point of View- We and the
narrator knew Rainsford’s thoughts, feelings and
emotions, through 3rd person. However, we only knew
about the other characters personality and thoughts
through dialogue and action. The point of view in this
story enhances the effect of the ominous feeling by not
knowing how Zaroff feels about his prey or the game
he plays, while he is hunting. This is an example of the
literary term as it explains the point of view and the
knowledge of the narrator.
 Metaphor: An example of a metaphor would be in
“The Most Dangerous Game” when Whitney is talking
to Rainsford and he says, “’Sometimes I think evil is
tangible’(18)”. This is an example of a metaphor
because it’s describing evil as being tangible without
using like or as and directly comparing it.
 Allusion: A reference to a statement, a person, a place
or an event from literature, history, religion,
mythology, politics, sports, science or pop culture. In
the Story “Most Dangerous Game” General Zaroff
makes an allusion referring to the Russian Revolution
of 1917. “ After the debacle I left the country, for it was
imprudent for an officer of the czar to stay there…”
General Zaroff says to Rainsford during dinner. The
debacle is referring to the revolution.
 Antagonist: The character or force that blocks the
protagonist. In. the story “Most Dangerous Game”
General Zaroff is the antagonist. He is the opposing
force against Sanger Rainsford who is the protagonist.
 Flat Character: a character that has only one or two
traits and these can be described in a few words.
Whitney in the story “Most Dangerous Game” is a Flat
Character, he can only be described In a few words and
has only a few traits.
 Simile- “Ugh! It’s like moist black velvet” (18). -------Sanger
Rainsford uses this simile to describe the moonless
Caribbean night. You can tell it’s a simile because the quote
uses the word like to describe the night as moist black
velvet. Rainsford says this at the beginning of the story
when he cannot see anything in the distance standing on
the yacht.
 Stereotype- In “The Most Dangerous Game,” Zaroff shares
the similar qualities of villains such as being well-educated,
bored with life, wealthy, and immoral. Also, Zaroff is the
head villain with brains while Ivan is the strongman who
does the dirty work. Last, Ivan is the supporting villain who
only listens to the main villain with no thoughts of his own.
 Suspense- Suspense is shown in “The Most Dangerous
Game” throughout the first couple paragraphs, when ShipTrap Island is established as a mysterious island. Later,
Rainsford hears a gunshot coming from the island and falls
overboard. After he swims to the island and knocks on
General Zaroff’s door, suspense is at its highest with the
reader wondering who the man is. Also, when Rainsford is
up on the tree and Zaroff has successful tracked him, he
looks up to the top of the tree and blows a ring of smoke
deliberately. The suspense builds as Zaroff gets closer and
closer to Rainsford, finally looks up, and walks away with a
 In the story, “Most Dangerous Game,” a character
named Rainsford encounters many external conflicts.
The main external conflict that Rainsford deals with
throughout the story is that General Zaroff wants him
dead. This is an external conflict since it is man versus
man instead of man versus self.
 Plot
Exposition- Setting(Year 2081), everyone is equal through
handicap, tale of two parents whose son was taken for being too
good (Harrison Bergeron).
Rising Action- George and Hazel watch a ballet on TV, newsflash
warning of Harrison’s escape, Harrison appears on screen.
Climax- Harrison sheds his and his chosen empresses handicap
and they begin to dance. When they reach the ceiling and are
dancing, the Handicapper General storms in and shoots them
Falling Action- George returns to living room (having missed the
shooting) to find Hazel crying and she seemingly does not
remember why.
Resolution-Harrison is dead, Hazel we indirectly found out is very
unintelligent, and George does not know what happened.
 In the story, “Harrison Bergeron,” the author characterizes
George directly. He explains how George is intelligent in
the third paragraph of the story. The author explains how
he wears something in his ear to prevent him from taking
an unfair advantage of his brain. This is direct
characterizations since the author tells you what to think of
George. The author says that George is intelligent.
 In the story, “Harrison Bergeron,” the author successfully
creates a suspenseful and dramatic climax which keeps the
reader on their seat. In the story, it is greatly detailed how
the handicapper General storms in and kills Harrison and
the ballerina. This is the climax of the story since it is has
the most excitement than any other part.
 Third Person Omniscient-In this story you can tell
what the woman is thinking while the boy stays at her
house, but also the boy’s thoughts while he sits next to
her bag. It is an example of third person omniscient, as
we know the boys thoughts, as well as Luella Bates’
thoughts, from a third person point of view, and these
are the only characters that we learn of in the book.
This POV enhanced the feel of the story by knowing
that the boy felt remorse while the lady felt a little bit
sorry for him.
 Situational irony: An example of situational irony
would be in “Thank You, Ma’am” when the boy tries to
rob Mrs. Luella Bates Washington Jones and instead of
successfully robbing her, she takes the boy in and feeds
him dinner, makes him wash his face and gives him
money for his blue suede shoes. It’s situational irony
because you’d think that when someone robs
someone, they wouldn’t take them under their wing to
give them a lesson.
 Simile-While Znaeym and Ulrich are trapped under
the beech tree, Ulrich begins to forgive his former foe,
Georg Znaeym, and states, “We have quarreled like
devils(192)”. This shows that Ulrich is now remorseful
and is condemning his actions. It is an example of a
simile as it uses the word like, to compare to similar
things. This simile enhances the story by adding a dark
and strong elaboration of how they had quarreled.
 Dynamic character: a character who changes as a
result of the stories events. In the story the
“Interlopers” Ulrich von Gradwitz starts out in the
story hating his neighbor Georg Znaeym and he
wants to hunt him down in the woods. But when
he finally finds him a tree branch falls on them and
they are trapped together. During this time they
reconcile and become friends again. Ulrich
changing his views of his neighbor during the
story and basically changing his way of life makes
him a dynamic character.
 Tone- In “The Interlopers,” the tones are: ironic,
suspenseful, and gloomy. It is ironic because of the
ending when both men believe that Ulrich’s men are
coming, but instead, when he gets a closer look at
them, they are wolves. It is suspenseful because
towards the end, when Georg and Ulrich are stuck
under the tree waiting for their men to come and
finally see them, the intensity builds up and everyone
expects them to be rescued. In the end though, they
are wolves. The tone is gloomy because the death at
the end of the story makes it feel dark, and also the
winter night makes it seem dark.
 First Person Point of View- In the short story, “A Cask of a
Montillado”, A man named Montressor finds an enemy of his,
Fortunato, and persuades Fortunato to come to his house to see
an amontillado. When Montresor prepares to lead Fortunato,
there is an excellent quote displaying first person point of view.
“Thus speaking, Fortunato possessed himself of my arm. Putting
on a mask of black silk and drawing a roquelaure closely about
my person, I suffered him to hurry me to my palazzo(213)”. This
quote shows that Montresor is going to take the man to his
house and there is subtle sense of foreshadowing. It is an
example of first person point of view, since Montresor is telling
the story from his perspective and using personal pronouns such
as I. This type of POV gives the story an even greater ominous
feeling, as you can get an unhindered account of what happened
leading up to the horrific murder.
 Foreshadowing: An example of foreshadowing would be in
“The Cask of Amontillado” in the beginning when
Monstresor says “The thousand injuries of Fortunado I had
borne as best I could; but when he ventured upon insult, I
vowed revenge(212)”. This is foreshadowing because it tells
you that some time in the story, Montresor is going to get
revenge somehow.
 Static Character: a character who does not change
much in the course of a story. In the story “The Cask of
Amontillado” Montressor wants to kill Fortunato for
insulting him. Throughout the story he still wants to
kill him, his attitude, appearance and state of mind
never change so that makes him a static character.
 Unreliable Narrator- An unreliable narrator may
purposely choose to deceive the reader, may speak in a
certain tone or style, and his/her actions might be a
sign to being an unreliable narrator. Montressor is an
unreliable narrator because of how he purposely does
not tell the reader everything he knows, not specifying
why he is mad at Fortunato.
 In the story “Cask of Amontillado,” the narrator definitely
knew how to set the dialect correctly since he wrote the
story with an authentic Italian dialect. In the story,
Montressor and Fortunato have conversations in a way that
Italians would. They use vocabulary that is more common
in Italy, and the way they speak makes them sound Italian.
This is a prime example of dialect since it is a particular
form of a language (English) that is peculiar to a specific
region (Italy).
 The narrator introduces the story, “Cask of Amontillado,”
by characterizing Montressor indirectly. “The thousand
injuries of Fortunato I had borne as best I could; but when
he ventured upon insult, I vowed revenge. You, who so well
know the nature of my soul, will not suppose, however,
that I gave utterance to a threat. At length I would be
avenged; this was a point definitively settled—but the very
definitiveness with which it was resolved precluded the
idea of risk. I must not only punish, but punish with
impunity” (211). This shows that Montressor is crazy and
overdramatic since he longs for get revenge over an insult.
 Protagonist- In the short story by Liam O'Flaherty,
called “The Sniper” the main character, a student,
Republican sniper is the protagonist throughout the
selection. This is inferred due to the fact that the story
only focuses on him and his actions, and through the
course of most of the story, he sees his actions as
morally right. Because of this, the story is enhanced by
letting us see the tale of the war, through the actions of
a fanatic who believes in a free Ireland.
 Imagery: “The long June twilight faded into night.
Dublin lay enveloped in darkness but the dim light of
the moon that shone through fleecy clouds, casting a
pale light as of approaching dawn over the streets and
the dark waters of the Liffey(262)”. This quote from
“The Sniper” is imagery because it describes Dublin at
night in great detail.
 Dramatic irony: An example of dramatic irony would
be in “The Sniper” when the Republican Sniper shot
his target and it ended up being his brother. It’s
dramatic irony because when you read the story, you’d
think that they would be mortal enemies from the way
things were being described, but his so-called “enemy”
turned out to be his brother, which is something you
wouldn’t expect.
 Round Character: is like a real person and has many
different character traits, which sometimes contradict one
another. In the story “The Sniper” Liam O’ Flaherty uses
vivid description to describe the character traits of the
sniper. “His face was the face of a student, thin and ascetic,
but his eyes had the cold gleam of the fanatic. They were
deep and thoughtful, the eyes of a man who was used to
looking at death.” the narrator said about the sniper. This
quote is just some of the description used to describe the
 In the story, “The Sniper,” the main character has a
very good example of internal conflict towards the
resolution of the story. The story explains how the
main character feels remorse for killing the other
sniper on the rooftop across from him. This is internal
conflict since its man versus self because he’s having a
difficult time dealing with the sad deed he completed.
 Theme- The theme is that everything in history is
connected, and if one thing went differently the world
would not be the same. When Eckels went out of the path
and killed the butterfly, it changed the system of writing
and Deutscher won the presidential election instead of
Keith. This proves that if one slight change occurred, the
world would be different today.
 Hyperbole: An example of a hyperbole would be in “A
Sound of Thunder” when Travis says that if Eckles touches
anything that is not on the path, then one thing would turn
into another and before you know it, our whole future
would be totally different. This is a hyperbole because
Travis over exaggerates on what would happen if he
touches anything in the past.
 Verbal irony: An example of verbal irony would be in “A
Sound of Thunder” when Eckles says, “’Not a little thing
like that! Not a butterfly!” This quote if verbal irony
because you wouldn’t think that something like a butterfly
would change the future, but according to Eckles, it did.
 Setting: “A Sound of Thunder” is set in an office in the
present day and a “broad and high jungle” 60 million years
ago. This is an example of setting as it describes where this
short story is taking place. The great detail and description
of the setting enhance the story by fully allowing us to
picture the world with the dinosaurs that they are hunting.
 Analogy: Comparison made between 2 things to show
how they are alike in some respects. An example of an
analogy: Apple is to Fruit as Corn is to Vegetable. In
this example 2 types of food are being compared.
 Great examples of flashbacks take place in the
television show, Lost. In the program, people are
stranded on an island and flashbacks occur from when
they were not on the island. These are flashbacks since
the story line pauses to view a previous point in time,
then resumes to the normal story line.