100 Years War

The Renaissance in the North
PP 56-59
Johan Gutenberg
• Experimented with moveable type
• Invented the printing press 1455
– Made individual letters easily moveable on a print
– Variety of text could be made by re-arranging
• Able to mass produce books
• Made it possible to spread propaganda
• Stimulated literacy of lay people
Printing Press
Northern Renaissance
• Began in Netherlands
• Students from Germany France England and
Low countries flocked to Italy
• Spread through trade, travel
Famous Northern Artist
• Jan Van Eyck
– Portrayed towns people and religious themes
• Peter Bruegel
– Used vibrant colors to portray peasant life
• Peter Paul Reubens
– Paintings portrayed biblical, classical and
mythological themes
Jan Van Eyck
Peter Bruegel
Peter Paul Reubens
“Leonardo of the North”
Albrecht Durer
Traveled to Italy to learn about humanities
Applied Techniques to engraving
– This was done by carving patterns on a metal plate
with acid and using it to create prints
Albrecht Durer
Northern Humanist Writers
• Desiderius Erasmus
– Dutch Priest
– Had a deep understanding of Latin and studied
the Latin Classics
– Wrote about the formation of Character in
– Used his knowledge to produce a Greek New
– Called for a translation of the bible to vernacular
Northern Humanist Writers
• Sir Thomas More
– English Humanist trained as a lawyer
– Wrote Utopia means “Nowhere” about ideal
society where men and women are equal live in
peace and harmony
– Book about an Idealistic Community on an Island
– All people work and contribute and are educated
throughout life
Northern Humanist Writers
• Francois Rabilias
– French Humanist
– Wrote comical Gargantua and Pantagruel
– Discussed comical travels through Europe, but it
actually offered opinions about religion and
spoofed contemporary French society
– Believed education was the key to a moral and
healthy life
Northern Humanist Writers
• William Shakespeare
– English poet and play-write
– Between 1590 and 1613 wrote 37 plays
– Performed at the Globe Theater
– Burnt down during the play Henry the VII from a
cannon shot on stage
Popular Shakespeare Plays
Romeo and Juliet
Julius Caesar
Richard the III
“Romeo, Romeo where fore art thou
“To be or not to be”
“Et tu, brute”
Daughter of Time
Things to know High Middle Ages
Prelude to disaster
Black Death
The Hundred Years War 1337-1453
The Great Schism
Prelude to disaster
• Severe weather conditions from “Little Ice
• Prices rose rapidly
• Storms ruined crops
• Too expensive to transport food long distance
• Decreased calorie intake lead to poor health
• Lower productivity
• Typhoid out break
The Black Death
• Improvements of boat technologies allowed for year
round shipping
• Ships at sea constantly so rats on the ships were on
the move
• Bubonic plague
– October 1347 Genoese Ships brought the Plague to
– January 1348 Genoa, Sicily, Venice, then to Rome and
– Late Spring 1348 Germany
– June 1348 two ships brought it to England
Black Death
How it Spread
• Bacteria carried in fleas
• Fleas lived on rats who traveled on ships
among cargo (grains)
• Rats leave the ship go into town
• Called black death because of large black
welts on the victims
• Bubonic (blood borne) became pneumonic
100 Years War 1337-1453
Actually lasted 116 years
Between England and France
Over land rights to northern France
Ruined the economies and governments
What caused the War
• King of France, Philip, dies leaving no heir
• Since the mother (Isabella) of the King of England
(Edward III) was king of France’s sister Edward III
claimed he had a birthright to the throne of France
• Nobles disputed this no woman or her son could
claim the throne
• Crown passed to Philip VI nephew of the French king
igniting intermittent war from 1337-1453
What Happened
• Governments of both countries manipulated
public opinion
• England waged war to try to get Edward III the
crown of France
• Kings of both countries issued letters to clergy
asking them to discuss the plight in service
• Presented opportunities for poor knights to
gain wages in battle- mercenaries
Course of War
Fought mostly in Northern France
Random sieges and cavalry raids
French supported Scottish incursions against England
England was very successful early on
– Long bow vs. cross bow
– English used cannons first time used in western warfare
• Joan of Arc
Was more of a missionary not a warrior
Believed if the French soldiers “cleaned up their act” God would be on their side
Siege of Orleans English withdrew due to sickness
French Claim victory and crown Charles VII king
Captured by English
Put to death condemned as a heretic
Canonized by Catholic church
English Long Bow
French Crossbow
100 Years War
Joan of Arc
Results of the War
• Thousands killed adding to Black Death
• England
Damage to southern England Shipping ports
Cost of war over 5 million pounds
Break down in order with knights away
Taxes raised to pay for the war
Creation of English Parliament, a representative assembly
• France
– Spent almost as much as England
– Did not create a national assembly had regional assemblies
– Monarchs lacked the power to assemble
• Nationalism begins to emerge
Decline of the Church’s Prestige
In times of crisis and disaster, people of all
faith’s have sought the consolation of religion.
In the fourteenth century however, the official
Christian church offered little solace. In fact the
leaders of the church added to the people’s
The Babylonian Captivity
• Church began to be more political
• Pope Clement V ill with cancer / Philip the Fair
• 1309-1379 Pope lived in Avignon, France giving
control of the church and its politics to the French
• Damaged the papal prestige
• During this time Popes concentrated more on
politics than spirituality
• Atmosphere more of a life of luxury not penance
• The leadership was isolated from its historical
roots in Rome
The Great Schism
• 1377 Pope Gregory XI brought the Papal court
back to Rome then died
• Roman’s/Italian’s demanded the next Pope be
Italian so the papal court stays in Rome
• Conclave elected Archbishop of Bari,
Bartolommeo Prignano
• Took the name Urban VI
The Great Schism cont.
• Pope Urban VI had intentions of reform
• Denounced individual cardinals by name for lavish
lifestyle loosing their favor and threatened to
• The cardinals left Rome met at Anagni
• Voted the Urban VI was voted excommunicated by the
• Met again in Fondi voted Cardinal Robert of Geneva
pope. He was the cousin of Charles V of France
• Cardinal Robert became Clement VII and set up back in
The Great Schism Two Popes now existed
This divided Europe
Urban VI Rightful Pope
Lived in Rome
Believed in reform
Felt Church was separate
from Government
Recognized by Italy and
Clement VII Anti-pope
• Lived in Avignon
• Wanted to continue the way
things were
• Was more involved in
• Recognized by France
*eventually denounced by Italy
This all weakened the religious faith of many Christians
and gave rise to instability and excess
Precursor to the Reformation
• John Wyclif 1330-1384
– Claimed papal power was not derived from the
– Scripture alone should be the belief and practice
– Ideas condemned by Church authorities
• Jan Hus 1389-1415
– Insisted religion be orthodox
– Disputed papal authority (both of them) and
denounced the practices of the church
• Two colleges of cardinals meet and
denounced the two current Popes in response
to calls for reform and elect a new Pope
• The two current Popes refuse to resign so now
there are three Popes
• German Emperor Sigismund pressures council
to meet and resolve the problems
• Council meets in 1414 in Constance
End of the Great Schism
• Council meets in Constance 1414-1418
• Three objectives
– Depose both Popes and Anti Pope
– Elect a new Pope
– End heresy invited Jan Hus to the council and burned
him at the stake
Elected Roman Cardinal Colonna became Martin V but
he did little to reform after dissolving the council